San Miguel Church - National Park Service

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NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

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National Register of Historic Places Registration Form

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This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See in struct ns AEQSIVfiii(!):~280 Bulletin, How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. If any ttem does not ap y l h-.-o.,o· documented, enter "N/A" for "not applicable." For functions , architectural classification, materials, and areas o sig ificancc. enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions.

FEB 2 6 2016

1. Name ofProperty Historic name: San Mi uel Church Other names/site number: Old San Miguel Mission; Church of San Miguel; SR 291 Name of related multiple property listing: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. AD 1598-1881 (Enter "N/A" if property is not part of a multiple property listing 2. Location Street & number: 403 El Camino Real Street NW City or town: SocmTo State: New Mexico Not For Publication: Vicinity:

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County: Socorro

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3. State/Federal Agency Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I hereby certify that this _x_ nomination _ request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property_x_ meets_ does not meet the National Register Criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant at the following level(s) of significance: national _x_statewide Applicable National Register Criteria:

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_K_C

_local D

Dr. Jeff Pappas, New Mexico States Historic Preservation Officer

Signature of certifying official/Title:

Date

State or Federal agenq/bureau or Tribal Government In my opinion, the property _meets_ does not meet the National Register criteria. Signature of commenting official:

Date

Title:

State or Federal agency/bureau or Tribal Government 1

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service I National Register of Historic Places Registration Form OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

4. National Park Service Certification !.._ Jyreby

certify that this property is:

~entered in the National Register

_determined eligible for the National Register _determined not eligible for the National Register _removed from the National Register _other(explain:) _ _ _ _ _ __ __

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Signature of the Keeper

5. Classification Ownership of Property (Check as many boxes as apply.)

Public - State

0 D 0

Public- Federal

D

Private: Public- Local

Category of Property (Check only one box.) Building(s)

0

District

D

Site

D

Structure

D

Object

D Sections 1-6 page 2

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Number of Resources within Property (Do not include previously listed resources in the count) Contributing Noncontributing ______1______ ______0______

buildings

______1______

______0______

sites

______0______

______0______

structures

______0______

______0______

objects

______2______

______0______

Total

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register ___0____ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Function or Use Historic Functions (Enter categories from instructions.) Religion: religious facility Funerary: cemetery___ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions.) Religion: religious facility ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

_____________________________________________________________________________ 7. Description Architectural Classification (Enter categories from instructions.) Colonial: Spanish Colonial Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals: Mission/Spanish Colonial Revival ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Materials: (enter categories from instructions.) Principal exterior materials of the property: Stone, Adobe, Metal____________________

Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current physical appearance and condition of the property. Describe contributing and noncontributing resources if applicable. Begin with a summary paragraph that briefly describes the general characteristics of the property, such as its location, type, style, method of construction, setting, size, and significant features. Indicate whether the property has historic integrity.) ______________________________________________________________________________ Summary Paragraph San Miguel Church is a large Catholic church located on the route of El Camino Real de Tierra and north of the plaza in the town of Socorro in Socorro County, New Mexico. Built on the site of a 17th-century Spanish mission, San Miguel Church was constructed c.1821 with thick adobe walls and massive buttresses, which support the front corners. The flat roofs were covered with gable and hip roofs in the 19th century. In c.1933, the Gothic Revival-style façade was rebuilt in the Spanish Colonial Revival style with an arched parapet and twin towers. The Gothic-style entrance remains. The cruciform plan includes a shallow transept on the south side and an extended transept on the north that that forms the side chapel, which was built in the 1880s. The north end of the chapel includes a plaster figure of Christ in repose. The nave is lined with stained-glass windows. Plaster religious figures in nichos are located throughout. The roof is supported by wood corbels and vigas. The sanctuary, which is illuminated by a transverse clerestory, faces northwest to address both the nave and side chapel. The altar features a sculpted crucifixion scene. The choir loft above the entrance features elaborately carved balusters and joists. The walled campo santo in front of the church entrance includes the burials of early parishioners. The nomination includes the church and campo santo and does not include other buildings or structures association with the church. Section 8 page 4

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

______________________________________________________________________________ Narrative Description San Miguel Church is a cruciform-plan church constructed with thick adobe walls and covered with gable and hip roofs. Built c.1821, the church is supported by adobe walls that taper from five feet thick at the base to three and four feet thick at the parapet. The exterior walls are plastered in cement stucco with a five foot high mud-plaster band around the base. Massive buttresses support the front corners. The nave is covered with a gable-front roof. A taller hip roof covers the crossing and the apse. Both roofs are covered with sheet metal. In c.1933, the Gothic Revival-style façade was rebuilt in the Spanish Colonial Revival style with an arched parapet and twin towers. The façade is balanced and symmetrical. The three-stage towers are square in plan and surmounted by domes topped with metal crosses. The towers feature decorative rosettes and copper louvres framed in molded Gothic arches. The Gothic-style entrance remains. An arched stained-glass window depicting the Archangel St. Michael is located above the entrance. A rondel with a sunburst motif is located in the parapet. The north and south sides of the nave each include two, arched stained-glass windows. These are set in larger rectangular openings, which can be seen on the interior. The side chapel features square replacement windows. In 1974, a small, two-room addition was built on the west side (rear) of the side chapel to serve as a confessional and entrance foyer. The cruciform plan includes a shallow transept on the south side and an extended transept on the north that that forms the side chapel, which was built in the 1880s. Hand-carved wood pilasters, original to the church, support the choir loft. The circular wood staircase and choir loft balustrade were built during a renovation of the church in 1973 and 1974. The fifteen rows of wood pews seat 300 worshippers. The pews and wood were replaced. The renovation included replacing some deteriorated vigas and corbels in the nave and adding vigas and corbels to the plain ceiling of the side chapel. This renovation uncovered the wood lintels above the entrance and windows in the nave. The clerestory with four oculi illuminates the altar. The truss that spans the nave was likely installed to support the weight of the ceiling and clerestory. The sanctuary is elevated above the nave by several steps. The pulpit faces the northeast to allow the clergy to address worshippers in the nave and side chapel. The altar features a sculpted crucifixion scene. The apse is flanked by rectangular nichos with newly installed, unpainted wood surrounds. The stylized surrounds are flanked by Solomonic columns and topped by sunbursts. The ceiling in the side chapel is supported by corbels and vigas. A doorway on the shallow south transept leads to the sacristy. San Miguel Church is part of a complex of buildings and structures, most of which are not included within the National Register boundary because of a loss of historic integrity or because they are less than fifty years of age. These include the Mount Carmel Catholic School, sacristy, parish house, auditorium building, and open-storage shed.

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Historic Integrity San Miguel Church maintains its historic design, materials, and workmanship. The church retains its historic cruciform plan, with twin towers and adobe walls. The plan is apparent in the interior with its open nave, choir loft, sanctuary, and side chapel. In 1973, the building was renovated with repairs to the adobe and wood structural elements, exposing historic material, and replacing damaged material. The renovation included new pews, wood floors, a circular stair to the choir loft, and modern building systems. In 2010, the church underwent a significant effort to stabilize the building, which included repairing the adobe walls. The design, materials, and workmanship are evident in the adobe structure and the wood structural elements, such as vigas and corbels that support the roof. The setting has been lost, except for its located along a paved section of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro and the forecourt and campo santo. The forecourt and campo santo are characteristic of Spanish Colonial churches from the 17th and 18th centuries. San Miguel Church retains a high level of historic integrity.

Contributing and Noncontributing Resources San Miguel Church is counted as one contributing building. The forecourt is counted as one contributing site. There are no noncontributing resources associated with this nomination.

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

_________________________________________________________________ 8. Statement of Significance Applicable National Register Criteria (Mark "x" in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing.) X

A. Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history. B. Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past.

X

C. Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction. D. Property has yielded, or is likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.

Criteria Considerations (Mark “x” in all the boxes that apply.) X

A. Owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes B. Removed from its original location C. A birthplace or grave D. A cemetery E. A reconstructed building, object, or structure F. A commemorative property G. Less than 50 years old or achieving significance within the past 50 years

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Areas of Significance (Enter categories from instructions.) Architecture_________ Transportation_______ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Period of Significance c.1821-c.1930_______ ___________________ ___________________

Significant Dates c.1821—San Miguel Church constructed. 1880s—Side chapel constructed. c.1930—Façade and towers reconstructed.

Significant Person (Complete only if Criterion B is marked above.) N/A________________ ___________________ ___________________

Cultural Affiliation N/A________________ ___________________ ___________________

Architect/Builder Unknown___________ ___________________ ___________________

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Statement of Significance Summary Paragraph (Provide a summary paragraph that includes level of significance, applicable criteria, justification for the period of significance, and any applicable criteria considerations.) San Miguel Church is significant at the state level under National Register Criterion C in the area of architecture because it is an excellent example of an early 19th-century Spanish Colonial church with adobe walls, timber ceilings, and a cruciform plan that is characteristic of 17th and 18th-century Spanish Colonial churches. San Miguel Church is significant at the state level of significance under National Register Criterion A in the area of transportation because the church maintained a significant association with El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro by providing succor to travelers and also receiving from caravans the religious objects needed to conduct the Catholic liturgy. San Miguel Church meets property type F.10 “churches” in the MPDF (Additional Documentation) and is significant in the areas of architecture and transportation because of its association with El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. San Miguel Church was listed in the State Register of Cultural Properties as the Church of San Miguel (SR 291) in 1973. ______________________________________________________________________________ Narrative Statement of Significance (Provide at least one paragraph for each area of significance.) San Miguel Church is significant at the state level under National Register Criterion C in the area of architecture because it is an excellent example of an early 19th-century Spanish Colonial church, with adobe walls, timber ceilings, and a cruciform plan that is characteristic of 17th -and 18th-century Spanish Colonial churches. These churches were built with thick adobe walls, sometimes buttressed, and covered with a gabled or flat roof. The roof is supported by vigas. A low wall may surround the church and forecourt to define the precinct. Churches are usually located on one side of a plaza. Some were demolished during the Pueblo Revolt in 1680 and later rebuilt. These churches, among the first buildings constructed by the Spanish in New Mexico, were built by pueblo Indians under the direction of Spanish friars for purpose of converting Native Americans to Catholicism. San Miguel was among the last Spanish Colonial churches constructed in New Mexico. Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and El Rosario, both in Santa Fe, El Santuario in Chimayo, and San Francisco de Asís in Rancho de Taos, were also constructed in the first decades of the 19th century, before New Mexico came under the control of Mexico in 1821. San Miguel Church is significant at the state level of significance under National Register Criterion A in the area of transportation because the church maintained a significant association with El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro by providing succor to travelers and also receiving from caravans the religious objects needed to conduct the Catholic liturgy. These items were manufactured by artisans in Mexico and included gilded altar screens, pipe organs, and religious artworks to adorn the churches. According to the Multiple Property Documentation Form, “El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro in New Mexico, 1598-1881 (Additional Documentation)”:

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Churches are a property type located along or in the vicinity of El Camino Real. Often located in settlements or small towns, these buildings may be the oldest and/or only surviving buildings in a particular community from the 1598 to 1881 period of significance for the MPDF. Churches include, though not exclusively, Spanish mission churches, usually located in pueblos, along the Rio Grande. The Hispanic idea of what a church should look like, established in the 17th century, is the basis of New Mexico’s ecclesiastical architecture in the 1700s, the 1800s, and to the present.

In addition, the MPDF states: “Churches are significant because they served as visual landmarks for travelers along the trail. Churches were typically two to three times taller than most houses in a pueblo or village and would have been seen by travelers from a significant distance . . . . Churches along El Camino Real provided travelers with reassuring symbols of Spanish culture and governance . . . . The practice of Catholicism was an important practice throughout New Spain. It was both an act of faith and a cultural practice that united the province of New Mexico with more cosmopolitan reaches of the Spanish empire in Mexico and in Spain.”

References to El Camino Real at Socorro include: “Across the river was the Piro pueblo of Teypama, where the inhabitants had made a gift of food to the Oñate caravan: hence its name, Socorro (succor). Later the name was transferred to the village of Pilabó and the mission site of San Miguel de Socorro.” 1 “The Socorro ford, about 25 miles above Valverde, was also used by Oñate, who crossed to the Piro pueblo on the west bank of the Rio Grande.” 2 Vargas spent one evening in the ruins of the Socorro mission as he traveled north on El Camino Real to reestablish Spanish sovereignty in New Mexico. He recorded in his journal on June 14, 1692 that the expedition reached the pueblo of Teypama, which the Spanish called Socorro “because it furnished us with much maize.” Churches in southern New Mexico with associations with El Camino Real include San Miguel Church in Socorro, San Felipe de Neri Church in Albuquerque, San Agustín Church in Isleta Pueblo, and the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria in Doña Ana.

1

Steven Moffson, “El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro in New Mexico, AD 1598-1881 (Additional Documentation),” E-11. Multiple Property Documentation Form. 2015. On file at the Department of Cultural Affairs, Historic Preservation Division, Santa Fe, NM. 2

Marc Simmons, The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settlement of the Far Southwest. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 106. Section 8 page 10

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Criterion Consideration A San Miguel Church meets Criterion Consideration A, which states “a religious property is eligible if it derives its primary significance from architectural or artistic distinction or historic importance.” San Miguel derives its primary significance as an excellent example of an early 19th-century Spanish Colonial church and because of its association with El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. ______________________________________________________________________________ Developmental history/additional historic context information (if appropriate) The San Miguel Church was constructed between 1816 and 1821 over the remains of a 17th century Spanish mission. The first church was constructed in c.1626 during the early years of Spanish rule over New Mexico. Fray Alonso de Benavides, a Franciscan missionary, established the mission Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro at the Piro Pueblo of Pilabó. Following the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the Pueblo of Pilabó was permanently abandoned. Vargas, in travels north to reestablish Spanish rule in New Mexico, reported: Today, Tuesday 9 December, notwithstanding the appearance of the great windstorm and snows, the day before being overcast everywhere; this campsite is unprotected; the lomas have no pasturage for the horses; and there is no firewood with which the wretched men-at-arms might protect themselves against the harshness of the weather, as it was snowing, I left this campsite to look for the pueblo of Socorro, which is the closest one. After a distance of about 2 leagues’ march, I entered it. The church walls, which are still standing, are very strong, more than two varas, and a span wide. I spent the night in a cell of its convento. Its doors and a piece of the upper front wall were fallen down. 3

Socorro was not resettled for more than a century after the Pueblo Revolt. Various travelers along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro noted the abandoned pueblo and mission in their travel accounts. Among them was Bishop Pedro Tamarón of Durango, Mexico, who reported that the walls of Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro were still standing during his 1760 visit of New Mexico missions. “On the seventeenth [of May 1760] we went over a road full of ravines. . . .On this day the re-mains of the pueblo of Socorro were seen on the other side of the river. The walls of the church are standing, and there are peach trees. And they say that an arroyo which rises in the sierra comes down on that side. This pueblo was also lost with the kingdom.” 4

3

John L. Kessell and Rick Hendricks, eds. By Force of Arms: The Journals of Don Diego de Vargas, New Mexico, 1691–1693. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992), 591.

4

Eleanor B. Adams, ed., “Bishop Tamarón’s Visitation of New Mexico, 1760,” New Mexico Historical Review 28 (1953): 192–221, 291–315. Section 8 page 11

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

In January of 1815, as Mexican War of Independence raged, Governor Alberto Maynez awarded the Town of Socorro land grant to seventy families led by Miguel Antonio Chavez and Pedro Bautista Pino. The land grant included the remains of Nuestra Señora de Perpetua Socorro. The settlers may have incorporated elements of the ruined 17th-century church in their reconstruction. In c.1821, when San Miguel Church was complete, Mexico won its sovereignty from Spain and control of the province of New Mexico. The name of the church derives from an incident in which Apache raiders were stopped short of attacking Socorro residents, who were hiding in the new church, when a winged figure wielding a sword appeared before them. The new church was thereafter dedicated to the Archangel St. Michael, or San Miguel. The adobe church was built in a form common to early New Mexico mission churches. This form is defined by its cruciform plan, a flat, two-level roof supported with vigas, a transverse clerestory illuminating the apse, adobe walls with buttresses, a choir loft, and a walled campo santo in the forecourt. The twin towers are a common feature of mission churches, but it remains unclear if the towers at San Miguel are original to the church. The towers were however in existence by 1856, when U.S. Army surgeon John Fox Hammond noted, “the only prominent object seen at a little distance . . . is the adobe church, with its two turrets and belfry, which reminds one forcibly of a large-sized Mississippi steamboat.” The towers were rebuilt in the Gothic Revival style, probably in the 1860s during the tenure of Jean Baptiste Lamy (1851-1885), who served as Bishop of Santa Fe. Lamy emigrated from France to the United States in 1839. As head of the new Santa Fe Archdiocese, Lamy dedicated himself to remodeling many of New Mexico’s mission churches with pitched roofs and GothicRevival-style architectural details. The upper stages of the towers at San Miguel were rebuilt as wood spires with Gothic arches. The spires contained small louvered openings. The iron bell in the south tower was cast by J. G. Stuckstede & Brothers in St. Louis in 1869. The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway arrived in Socorro in 1880, bringing manufactured building supplies from the East. During the 1880s, gabled and hipped roofs were constructed over San Miguel’s nave and apse. The wood-shingled roofs obscured the clerestory opening. The existing windows on the north and south sides were rebuilt as Gothic lancet windows. The four-over-four-light sash windows replaced smaller, higher window openings, which provided greater protection from raiding Indians. A square window was located above the entrance, which was sheltered by a wood semi-circular entrance porch. Late-19th-century photographs depict the small, flat-roofed sacristy on the south side of the sanctuary. A wooden picket fence enclosed the yard in front of the sacristy, its gate opposite the sacristy door. A mud-plastered adobe wall lined the three sides of the forecourt that included a campo santo. In the 1880s, the parish men, Los Caballeros Catolicos de San Miguel, or the Catholic Knights of Saint Michael, built the side chapel on the north side of the sanctuary by enlarging the north transept. The upper stage of the towers were remodeled a second time in the Gothic Revival style with Gothic-style pediments on all sides of the tower. The openings in the

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

spires were removed. In 1902, the Socorro Chieftain reported that the “appearance of the church of San Miguel has just been much improved by the repairing of the cupolas.” 5 The Gothic Revival style, which the congregation associated with French architecture, fell out of favor. In c.1930, Pastor Peter Pelzer rebuilt the towers and parapet in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. He also installed a bell in the north tower. The lancet windows along the nave were replaced with larger, round-headed windows. Pastor Joseph Mueller installed stained-glass windows between 1944 and 1949. In 1973, Pastor Laurier Andrew Labreche initiated a renovation of the church to “achieve a balance between the historic character of the Church and its contemporary use as a functioning parish.” Pacheco and Graham Architects of Albuquerque directed the project and Charles Van Landingham served as the general contractor. This renovation received a New Mexico Arts Commission Award in 1974 for excellence in the field of historic preservation as “a restoration within the limits of history and the needs of contemporary use.” 6 The exterior was resurfaced with adobe-colored stucco plaster. The wood louvers on the towers were repaired. Blind doors and nichos, installed in the on the main façade in the 20th-century, were removed. The interior plaster was removed, exposing the original wood window and door lintels and the wood pilasters supporting the choir loft. The tin ceiling above the apse, which was added c.1915 to 1920, was removed. The heavy wood-plank floor, vigas, and corbels were restored when possible. The transverse clerestory window, which had been obscured by the gable roof above the nave, was reestablished with artificial lighting. New construction included a circular-wood staircase to the choir loft, a balcony handrail, and systems for heating, air conditioning, and lighting. New vigas and corbels were added to the plain-wood ceiling in the side chapel. The side chapel also received a cement floor and a small two-room addition on the west side for a confessional and entrance foyer. More than 200 burials were identified in the nave. Most recently, the church was inspected and it was determined that it required stabilization. In 2010, the collapse of a Catholic church in nearby Lemitar prompted Father Andy Pavlak to examine the condition of the rest of the churches in his parish. After uncovering significant deterioration at San Miguel Church, Father Pavlak initiated a comprehensive $1.5 million restoration project from 2010 to 2014. The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation provided a $1.1 million donation toward the restoration. The roof was rebuilt with skylights that reveal the original clerestory opening. The illumination is increased with the use of solar tubes. On the interior, all cement-based plaster was removed from the base of the nave walls, and replaced with mud plaster on the exterior and the interior. Moisture in the base of the walls led to the disintegration of the adobe bricks and resulted in 5

Socorro Chieftain, 31 May 1902. Pacheco and Graham Architects. “The Church of San Miguel, Socorro, New Mexico,” New Mexico Architecture (November-December 1974): 12-17. 6

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

voids in the walls. These areas were infilled and stabilized with new adobe bricks. The deteriorated wood floor, the pews, altar, and nicho trim were replaced. New pews were added and the Gothic Revival-style surrounds that flanked the altar were replaced with smaller, plain Spanish Colonial Revival-style surrounds. The Gothic Revival-style surrounds were moved to the auditorium. The sacristy was remodeled as a kitchen. The trapezoidal-shaped forecourt is located on the east side of the church between the main façade and El Camino Real Street. This space, which has been defined by a wall since the 19th century, is surrounded by a stone wall covered with stucco. The forecourt is entered from gates on the north and south sides. Trees that appear in photos from the mid-20th century, no longer exist. The forecourt is paved in a radial plan, almost entirely in brick. Several small gravelcovered areas feature small plantings. A wood cross is located in the southeast corner. The campo santo where early parishioners are buried is located in the center of the forecourt. The brick paving and several small monuments were added between 2003 and 2005. The forecourt is significant as an open space defined by a wall that includes the campo santo. Since the late 19th century, the Sisters of Loretto had run a Catholic school located adjacent to the San Miguel Church. The Lorettines had a presence in New Mexico since 1852, when six nuns relocated from Kentucky to Santa Fe at the invitation of Archbishop Lamy. In 1879, they established a school for girls in Socorro. By the mid-1890s, the Sisters of Loretto opened the Socorro school to boys and girls, whose alumni include the successful hotelier Conrad Hilton. In 1950, Hilton donated $100,000 to the new Mount Carmel School, which was completed in 1951, and operated until 1998. The cafeteria was converted into a museum and gift shop. The school has had substantial changes to its design since it was constructed and is not included within the boundary of the National Register nomination.

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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Major Bibliographical References Bibliography (Cite the books, articles, and other sources used in preparing this form.) Adams, Eleanor B., ed. “Bishop Tamarón’s Visitation of New Mexico, 1760.” New Mexico Historical Review 28 (1953): 192–221, 291–315. Ashcroft, Bruce. The Territorial History of Socorro, New Mexico. Southwestern Studies Series No. 85. El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1988. Barbour, Richard Marie and Edith Anne Jaeger. Light in Yucca Land: Centennial Commemorative Volume, 1852-1952. Santa Fe: Loretto Academy of Our Lady of Light, 1952. “Commemorating the Solemn Rededication of Old San Miguel Mission, Socorro, New Mexico, May 19, 1974.” Booklet. Socorro: San Miguel Church, 1974. Jenkins, Boyd E. and Myra Ellen Jenkins. “The Church of San Miguel.” Application for Registration. New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties. 1973. On file at the Department of Cultural Affairs, Historic Preservation Division, Santa Fe, NM. Kessell, John L., and Rick Hendricks, eds. By Force of Arms: The Journals of Don Diego de Vargas, New Mexico, 1691–1693. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992. Hammond, John Fox. “Medical Topography and Diseases of Socorro” in Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality in the Army of the United States. . .” Washington, D.C.: Nicholson Printers, 1856. Lucero, Thomas L. and Thomas J. Steele. Religious Architecture in Hispano New Mexico. Albuquerque: LPD Press, 2005. Merlan, Thomas, Michael P. Marshall, and John Roney. “Camino Real in New Mexico, AD 1598-1881.” Multiple Property Documentation Form. 2011. On file at the Department of Cultural Affairs, Historic Preservation Division, Santa Fe, NM. Moffson, Steven. “El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro in New Mexico, AD 1598-1881 (Additional Documentation).” Multiple Property Documentation Form. 2015. On file at the Department of Cultural Affairs, Historic Preservation Division, Santa Fe, NM. “Old San Miguel Mission.” Pamphlet. Socorro: San Miguel Preserving Our History Ministry, 1908.

Sections 9-end page 15

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Pacheco and Graham Architects. “The Church of San Miguel, Socorro, New Mexico,” New Mexico Architecture (November-December 1974): 12-17. Riley, Carroll L. The Kachina and the Cross: Indians and Spaniards in the Early Southwest. Salt lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999. Sánchez, Joseph P. and Bruce A. Erickson, eds. From Mexico City to Santa Fe: A Historical Guide to El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. Los Ranchos, NM: Rio Grande Books, 2011. Simmons, Marc. The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settlement of the Far Southwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Socorro Chieftain, 31 May 1902. Taylor, John. Images of America: Catholics on the Rio Grande. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2011. Treib, Marc. Sanctuaries of Spanish New Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Wilson, Chris and Stefanos Polyzoides, eds. The Plazas of New Mexico. San Antonio, TX: Trinity University Press, 2011. ___________________________________________________________________________ Previous documentation on file (NPS): ____ preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested ____ previously listed in the National Register ____ previously determined eligible by the National Register ____ designated a National Historic Landmark ____ recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey #____________ ____ recorded by Historic American Engineering Record # __________ ____ recorded by Historic American Landscape Survey # ___________ Primary location of additional data: ____ State Historic Preservation Office ____ Other State agency ____ Federal agency ____ Local government Name of repository: _____________________________________ Historic Resources Survey Number (if assigned): ________________

Sections 9-end page 16

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

__________________________________________________________________________ 10. Geographical Data Acreage of Property Less than one acre

Use either the UTM system or latitude/longitude coordinates Latitude/Longitude Coordinates (decimal degrees) Datum if other than WGS84:__________ (enter coordinates to 6 decimal places) 1. Latitude: 34.060410

Longitude: 106.893776

2. Latitude:

Longitude:

3. Latitude:

Longitude:

4. Latitude:

Longitude:

Or UTM References Datum (indicated on USGS map): NAD 1927

or

NAD 1983

1. Zone:

Easting:

Northing:

2. Zone:

Easting:

Northing:

3. Zone:

Easting:

Northing:

Verbal Boundary Description (Describe the boundaries of the property.) The National Register boundary is ten feet around the church and forecourt with two exceptions: the boundary is flush against south transept so as not to include the nonhistoric structures to the south and the boundary follows the wall of the forecourt where it bounds Bernard and El Camino Real Street. The boundary appears in red on a map that is drawn to scale.

Sections 9-end page 17

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Boundary Justification (Explain why the boundaries were selected.) The boundary is an accommodation to the diminished setting of San Miguel. The setting comprises nonhistoric buildings and asphalt parking areas. The boundary includes the historic forecourt and campo santo. ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. Form Prepared By name/title: Kristen Reynolds, Consultant__________________ organization: David Reynolds GIS Services________________ street & number: 121 Tijeras NE_________________________ city or town: Albuquerque state: NM zip code 87108_______ e-mail [email protected]________________________ telephone: (505) 250-3652______________________________ date: September 1, 2015_______________________________

State Historic Preservation Office name/title: Steven Moffson, State and National Register Coordinator organization: New Mexico Historic Preservation Division________ street & number: 407 Galisteo Street, Suite 236________________ city or town: Santa Fe state: New Mexico zip: 87501______ e-mail [email protected]_________________________ telephone: 505.476.04444_________________________________ date: December 14, 2015 _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Additional Documentation Submit the following items with the completed form: •

Maps: A USGS map or equivalent (7.5 or 15 minute series) indicating the property's location.



Sketch map for historic districts and properties having large acreage or numerous resources. Key all photographs to this map.



Additional items: (Check with the SHPO, TPO, or FPO for any additional items.)

Sections 9-end page 18

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Photographs Submit clear and descriptive photographs. The size of each image must be 1600x1200 pixels (minimum), 3000x2000 preferred, at 300 ppi (pixels per inch) or larger. Key all photographs to the sketch map. Each photograph must be numbered and that number must correspond to the photograph number on the photo log. For simplicity, the name of the photographer, photo date, etc. may be listed once on the photograph log and doesn’t need to be labeled on every photograph. Photo Log Name of Property: San Miguel Church City or Vicinity: Socorro County: Socorro

State: NM

Photographer: Steven Moffson Date Photographed: November 21, 2014 Description of Photograph(s) and number, include description of view indicating direction of camera: 1 of 16. San Miguel Church with school (left), parish house (right) and El Camino Real Street in foreground, photographer facing west. 2 of 16. San Miguel Church with forecourt, photographer facing west. 3 of 16. San Miguel Church, main façade, photographer facing west. 4 of 16. San Miguel Church, detail of entrance doors, buttresses, and San Miguel window, photographer facing west. 5 of 16. San Miguel Church, main façade and south side with sacristy (left), photographer facing northwest. 6 of 16. San Miguel Church, west (rear) elevation, with school at right, photographer facing east. 7 of 16. San Miguel Church, north side with side chapel (right), photographer facing southeast. 8 of 16. Interior, nave toward sanctuary and altar, photographer facing west.

Sections 9-end page 19

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

9 of 16. Interior, nave toward sacristy and altar, photographer facing west. 10 of 16. Interior, side chapel from the sacristy, photographer facing north. 11 of 16. Interior, side chapel, photographer facing north. 12 of 16. Interior, north chapel, figure of Christ in Repose. 13 of 16. Interior, nave toward main entrance, photographer facing east. 14 of 16. Interior, choir loft, photographer facing east. 15 of 16. Interior, vigas and corbels above the choir loft, photographer facing south. 16 of 16. Mount Carmel School, photographer facing west.

Figures Figure 1. San Miguel Church, c.1880. Figure 2. San Miguel Church, Late 19th century. Figure 3. San Miguel Church, c.1900. Figure 4. San Miguel Church, 1933.

Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C.460 et seq.). Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 100 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Office of Planning and Performance Management. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1849 C. Street, NW, Washington, DC.

Sections 9-end page 20

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

San Miguel Church Socorro County, New Mexico Location Map National Register boundary USGS Quadrangle: Socorro, New Mexico

Sections 9-end page 21

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

San Miguel Church Socorro County, New Mexico National Register boundary Approximate scale: 1 inch = 60 feet. Base Map: Google Maps

Sections 9-end page 22

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

San Miguel Church Socorro County, New Mexico Site Plan Approximate scale: 1 inch = 120 feet. Base Map: Google Maps

Sections 9-end page 23

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

San Miguel Church Socorro County, New Mexico Floor Plan

Sections 9-end page 24

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Figures

Figure 1. San Miguel Church, c.1880.

Figure 2. San Miguel Church, Late 19th century. Sections 9-end page 25

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Figure 3. San Miguel Church, c.1900.

Figure 4. San Miguel Church, 1933.

Sections 9-end page 26

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Photographs

1 of 16. San Miguel Church with school (left), parish house (right) and El Camino Real Street in foreground, photographer facing west.

2 of 16. San Miguel Church with forecourt, photographer facing west. Sections 9-end page 27

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

3 of 16. San Miguel Church, main façade, photographer facing west.

4 of 16. San Miguel Church, detail of entrance doors, buttresses, and San Miguel window, photographer facing west.

Sections 9-end page 28

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

5 of 16. San Miguel Church, main façade and south side with sacristy (left), photographer facing northwest.

6 of 16. San Miguel Church, west (rear) elevation, with school at right, photographer facing east. Sections 9-end page 29

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

Sections 9-end page 30

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

7 of 16. San Miguel Church, north side with side chapel (right), photographer facing southeast.

8 of 16. Interior, nave toward sanctuary and altar, photographer facing west.

Sections 9-end page 31

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

9 of 16. Interior, nave toward sacristy and altar, photographer facing west.

10 of 16. Interior, side chapel from the sacristy, photographer facing north.

Sections 9-end page 32

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

11 of 16. Interior, side chapel, photographer facing north.

12 of 16. Interior, north chapel, figure of Christ in Repose.

Sections 9-end page 33

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

13 of 16. Interior, nave toward main entrance, photographer facing east.

14 of 16. Interior, choir loft, photographer facing east.

Sections 9-end page 34

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 1024-0018

San Miguel Church

Socorro County, NM

Name of Property

County and State

15 of 16. Interior, vigas and corbels above the choir loft, photographer facing south.

16 of 16. Mount Carmel School, photographer facing west.

Sections 9-end page 35

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San Miguel Church - National Park Service

NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service /~" ? 1e- ' - National Register of Historic Pla...

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