Lesson Designer - National Park Service

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Lesson Designer: Course/Grade: Unit:

Donna Olszewski Grade 4 BCPSS Grade 4

Lesson: Date:

The War of 1812 – Baltimore’s Role June 26, 2007

Outcomes: Students will read primary and secondary source documents to identify the actions of the citizens in the defense of Baltimore during the War of 1812.

VSC Objective Alignment: ƒ 5.C.2. Explain the political, cultural, economic and social changes in Maryland during the early 1800’s a. Describe Maryland’s role in the War of 1812 ƒ 6.D.1. Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the topic/situation/problem being studied a. Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as textbooks, government documents, timelines, trade books, websites.

Materials Needed: Transparencies of each Student Handout 1 copy for each student of Handout “Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812” Highlighters Colored pencils or thin lined markers Copies of primary source documents and graphic organizers for Group Handouts (1 for each pair of students) o Recruitment Poster o Letter written by John and S. Bell to Thomas C. Bell o Letter written by John Harris to Doctor William Harris Paper for newspaper article

Teacher Preparation: ƒ Duplicate worksheets and primary source documents ƒ Prepare transparencies or charts of each activity from the worksheets

Museum Connection The Maryland Historical Society – Access MdHS documents Fort McHenry

Teacher Background Information The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 1812 to the spring of 1815. Beginning with the end of the American Revolution in 1783 Britain frustrated the new nation by failing to withdraw from the area around the Great Lakes, supporting the Indians in the frontier and refusing to enter into equitable commercial agreements with the United States. Especially egregious was the practice of impressing Americans into British service. One of the actions taken by the United States was the passing of the Embargo Act banning all American ships from foreign trade. The embargo failed to change British and French policies but succeeded in devastating New England shipping. Additionally, other economic measures that were attempted failed to deter the Europeans in their destructive policies aimed at the United States. The elected Congress of 1810 included a group known as the War Hawks who demanded war against Great Britain. New England shippers who feared further destruction of their trade opposed war. However, on June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed a declaration of war that Congress passed. The first two years of the war saw numerous campaigns, many of which devastated the young nation’s forces. In 1814 the United States faced complete defeat. The British planned to attack the United States in three main areas: in New York along Lake Champlain and the Hudson River; at New Orleans; and in the Chesapeake Bay. The British appeared near success in the late summer of 1814. American resistance to the diversionary attack in Chesapeake Bay was so weak that the British, after winning the Battle of Bladensburg, marched into Washington, D.C., and burned most of the public buildings. President Madison had to flee into the countryside. The British then turned to attack Baltimore but met stiffer resistance and were forced to retreat after the American defense of Fort McHenry.

Procedure: Motivation The purpose of this activity is to provide the students with an example of the mood of the citizens of Baltimore prior to the British attack in September of 1814. ƒ Display Transparency 1 ƒ Read aloud the words of the song. ƒ Ask the students to interpret what they think the words mean. (The students should be able to explain that this is a poem, or message about a battle or war. Accept all responses.) ƒ Reread the words again, line by line and “translate” for the students. ƒ Tell the students that this was an old song that the citizens of Baltimore sang when they knew that the British troops under the command of General Ross where advancing on Baltimore. Get reactions from the students regarding the mood of the citizens based on the words of the song.

Guided Practice VSC Social Studies Skills and Processes 6.A.1. Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understandings of social studies vocabulary a. Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening, independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non-print sources 6.A.3. Use strategies to monitor understanding and derive meaning from text and portions of text (during reading) b. Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record important ideas or information There is vocabulary in the secondary source that should be cleared prior to beginning the activity. Vocabulary: (display the words and discuss the meaning of each) artillery – weapons for discharging missiles; a branch of an army battery – an emplacement for one of more pieces of artillery blockade – an action to keep supplies from getting into or out of an area brigade –a large unit of soldiers fortifications – a fort or defensive earthwork, wall, etc. master – a person in charge; a military title repose – calm, peace vessels – ships Purpose for reading: What actions did the citizens of Baltimore take to prepare for a possible attack by British forces? ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Display transparency of Handout #2 Distribute “Pictorial Field Book Handout #1” (Note to Teacher: This is a secondary source document. Make sure that the students understand the difference between a secondary and primary source. ) Direct students to paragraph #1. Read this paragraph, highlight or underline words or phrases that are important to the understanding of the text. Complete the graphic organizer which asks, Who, What, Tell Me and Show Me. Distribute the graphic organizer to groups of students and assign each group a paragraph to read. Bring the students to the front of the room in the order that their paragraph appears in the reading. Have students retell the story using their graphic organizers as a guide. Emphasize the role of the citizens and troops in preparing for the battle.

Independent Practice ƒ Divide the class into pairs. Assign a primary source document and reading guide sheet to each pair of students. The documents include a recruitment poster from 1813 and letters written immediately after and several months after the actual battle. o Groups: Recruitment Poster (Teacher’s Note: There is a recruitment poster from Connecticut included for display purposes only.) Letter written by John and S. Bell to Thomas C. Bell Letter written by John Harris to Doctor William Harris ƒ Have students read the assigned document and complete the appropriate worksheet. ƒ Allow students to respond to the prompts. Record responses.

Assessment (Student Product) ƒ Direct students to prepare a newspaper report using the facts from the primary source documents. ƒ Display the newspaper articles on a bulletin board. Wrap-Up Have students share the newspaper articles to retell the events related to Baltimore’s participation in the War of 1812.

Homework/Extension Assignment: Assign Lesson 10 “Francis Scott Key” http://www.nps.gov/fomc/index.htm Differentiation/Modifications: ƒ Student Grouping: When assigning students to work in groups, make sure that groups are heterogeneously mixed so that there is an opportunity for peer support. ƒ Primary Source Documents: For low literacy students, provide student friendly wording for each document. Assign passages based on level of difficulty and student ability. Additional Resources: Maryland Adventure by Suzanne Ellery Chapelle pages 93-95 Cobblestone Magazine. James and Dolley Madison, March 1996, Volume 17 – Number 3.

“The gen’ral gave orders for the troops to march down, To meet the proud Ross, and to check his ambition; To inform him we have decreed in our town That here he can’t enter without our permission. And if life he regards, he will not press too hard, For Baltimore freemen are ever prepared To check the presumptuous, whoever they be, That may rashly attempt to evade our decree.”

Handout #2

WHO

SHOW ME

The War of 1812 - Events At Baltimore WHAT

TELL ME

Major Armistead, commander of Fort McHenry from 1813 till his death in 1818, placed the following recruitment notice in various Baltimore newspapers in the summer 1813.

To Reputable Young Men Will be given a Bounty of FORTY DOLLARS and One Hundred and Sixty Acres of Land for enlisting in the 3d Regiment of Artillery by applying to GEO. ARMISTEAD, Major Fort McHenry Answer the questions below using information from the recruitment ad. 1. What kind of person is being recruited? (Hint: Read every line) ____________________________________________________ 2. Who is doing the recruiting? ______________________________ 3. Where would the recruit have to report to enlist? ____________________________________________________ 4. What will the recruit receive once he enlists? __________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

Design your own recruitment Broadside A soldier was given $124 and 160 acres of land upon his honorable discharge from either the “duration of the war” or five year’s service. Many citizens enlisted at Fort McHenry, coming from many walks of life: laborers, sailors, tailors, wagoners, blacksmiths, etc. Below are some guidelines.

No recruits under 18, nor above 40 years of age, nor any who are not able-bodied and free of disease (liability to fits, scald-head, ruptures, sore legs and scurvy) shall be enlisted. Using the information about recruits, design a recruitment poster. Remember to include information about what the recruit would do, the health of the recruit, and what the recruit would receive if he enlisted. ƒ

Baltimore Novr 14 (1814) We received Dr son your letters bearing dates thirty first octr & 15 Novr inclosing thirty dollars & but for that we had long since been destitute of the most ordinary comforts. 1. When was this letter written? __________________________ 2. What was the financial situation of the writer of the letter? Use words from the text to support your response. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ We conceive there is no danger this fall of another visit from the British heaven knows what the spring will effect? Baltimore is surrounded by encampments and the poor things called soldiers are dying off rapidly 3. Does the writer think that the British will attack Baltimore again? (read carefully) Explain your response. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 4. If there is no battle going on at this time, why do you think that soldiers are “dying off rapidly”? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

5. How would you describe the mood of this Baltimore resident? ____________________________________________________

Handout (to be used with the primary source document – John Harris letter) Read the letter written by John Harris to Doctor William Harris and answer the questions. 1. Look at the date that this letter was written. Was it written before or after the Battle of Baltimore? ____________________________________________ 2. What job did John Harris hold? __________________________ 3. When John Harris first arrived in Baltimore, did he think that the citizens would defend the city? Write the phrase from the letter that supports your answer. ___________________________________________________ 4. What happened to change his mind about the citizens defending the city? ___________________________________________________ 5. How do you think he felt during the actual battle in Baltimore? Use his words from the letter to support your answer. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ On the back of this sheet is a timeline. Use the facts as written in this letter to complete the timeline. Some of the events are listed in the box below the timeline. They are not listed in the correct order. Reread the letter and place them in the correct order on the timeline.

John Harris’ Activities During Late Summer and Early Fall of 1814

Joined the Marines at Charleston

l

l

(?)

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Aug. 19th

l Aug. 24th

l

l

l

Sept. 13th – 14th

Sept. 17th

Oct. 8th

Arrived in Bladensburg, Maryland Marched from Charleston to Baltimore Watched the bombardment of Baltimore by the British Wrote a letter to Doctor William Harris Arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

THE BATTLE OF BALTIMORE BANNER     __________________________________  (Title of Article) 

  ______________________  (Byline)    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________ 

  _____________________________________________________________    _____________________________________________________________ 

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Lesson Designer - National Park Service

Lesson Designer: Course/Grade: Unit: Donna Olszewski Grade 4 BCPSS Grade 4 Lesson: Date: The War of 1812 – Baltimore’s Role June 26, 2007 Outcomes...

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