Hamilton Grange National Memorial - National Park Service

Loading...

Hamilton Grange National Memorial Educator’s Guide Elementary School Version

Visiting Hamilton Grange Introduction: Alexander Hamilton was born and spent his early years in the Caribbean, becoming orphaned at a young age. Despite Hamilton’s background and difficult upbringing, he would become an indispensable aid to George Washington, both during the Revolution and after. Come visit Hamilton Grange National Memorial and find out more about this fascinating Founding Father, and the country home he built on his Harlem estate he affectionately called ―The Grange.‖

Arranging School Group Visiting: Hamilton Grange is open Wednesday through Sunday, 9am to 5pm. The site is closed Monday and Tuesday. We prioritize school group visits on Wednesdays and Thursdays in one-hour blocks between the hours of 10:00am and 12:00pm. The first floor of Hamilton Grange houses historic furnishings. Tours of the historic first floor last approximately a half hour. The capacity of the historic floor is limited to 15 visitors at all times. Therefore, school groups are strictly limited to a total of 30 people including all teachers and chaperones. NOTE: School groups must include 1 adult for every 8 students or part thereof (e.g. a class of 12 must be accompanies by 2 adults.) Be aware that groups larger than 15 will be split into two groups to visit the historically furnished rooms. A 20-minute film covering Hamilton’s life is available for viewing by one group while the other group visits the house. School groups must reserve at least 3 weeks in advance but no more than 3 months. Date change requests and cancellations must be made no less than 48 hours before your reservation. Email and voice messages will not suffice. You must speak directly with a staff member. To request a reservation for a school visit, please visit our website at http://www.nps.gov/hagr/index.htm and click on the ―For Teachers‖ link to download a reservation form. Fax your completed request to 646-548-9366 and we will respond. Thank you. Be advised: There are no dining facilities available anywhere on the property.

1

Biography: Hamilton was most likely born about 1755, in ALEXANDER HAMILTON

Drawing: Oil (1792) by John Trumbull. National Gallery of Art. Hamilton, a brilliant and pragmatic politician-lawyer who soared to fame and power from modest origins, was one of the giants of the early period of U.S. history. An ardent nationalist, he was instrumental in the convening of the Constitutional Convention and spearheaded ratification in New York—though he did not play a key role at the Convention. Later, he served as the first Secretary of the Treasury, laid the foundations for national economic growth, and helped found the Federalist Party. His life ended tragically in a duel with then Vice President Aaron Burr.

2

the British West Indies on the island of Nevis. Because Hamilton’s parents were not married there is no parish or civic record of his birth and therefore the exact date is difficult to identify. Hamilton was the illegitimate son of a common-law marriage between an English-French Huguenot mother who was a planter’s daughter and a poor itinerant Scottish merchant of aristocratic descent. In 1765, after Hamilton’s father had moved his family to St. Croix in the West Indies (now part of the United States Virgin Islands), he deserted his wife and two sons. Hamilton’s mother opened a small store to make ends meet. She and a Presbyterian clergyman provided the young Alexander with a basic education after he was denied a place at the local Church of England school. He learned to speak fluent French from his mother. Between the ages of 12 and 14, about the time of his mother’s death, he became an apprentice clerk in the town of Christiansted in a mercantile establishment, the proprietor of which became one of his benefactors. Recognizing his ambition and remarkable intelligence, his employers raised a fund for his education. In 1772 Hamilton traveled to New York City. Patrons he met there arranged for him to attend Barber's Academy at Elizabethtown (present-day Elizabeth), N.J. During this time, he met and stayed briefly at the home of the wealthy and influential William Livingston, who would one day be a fellow signer of the Constitution. Late the next year in 1773, Hamilton entered King’s College (which later became Columbia College) in New York City, but the Revolution would interrupt his studies. Although not yet 20 years of age, in 1774-75 Hamilton wrote several widely read pro-Continental Congress pamphlets. Right after the war broke-out, Hamilton accepted an artillery captaincy and fought in the principal campaigns of 1776 and 1777, which included the Battle of Harlem Heights, where Hamilton may have first come to the attention of General George Washington. In 1777, Hamilton was invited to join Washington’s staff as an aide-de-camp. There he received the rank of lieutenant colonel, and soon became Washington’s close confidant.

In 1780 Hamilton married New Yorker Elizabeth Schuyler, whose family was very wealthy and politically influential in the state; they would later have eight children. In 1781, as the war was winding down, Hamilton pushed for and received a field command, and led a daring and victorious attack in the Yorktown, Virginia campaign that ended the siege. Hamilton resigned his commission later that year. Hamilton then studied law in Albany and quickly entered practice, but public service soon attracted him. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1782. In 1783, Hamilton established a law office in New York City. Because of his interest in strengthening the national government, he represented New York State at the Annapolis Convention in 1786, where he urged delegates to meet again. This later gathering would become the Constitutional Convention. In 1787 Hamilton served in the New York State legislature, which appointed him as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia. Hamilton played a surprisingly small role in the debates, apparently because he was frequently absent on legal business, but his nationalistic views also put him at odds with many of the delegates, and he was frustrated by the conservative views of his two fellow-New York delegates. Hamilton did, however, sit on the Committee of Style, and was the only one of the three delegates from New York State who signed the finished document. Hamilton’s part in New York’s ratification of the Constitution the next year was substantial. Although Hamilton believed the Constitution was not perfect, he felt out of necessity it needed to be ratified. Against determined opposition, Hamilton waged a strenuous and ultimately successful campaign for ratification. Hamilton’s efforts to encourage ratification of the Constitution included collaborating with John Jay and James Madison in writing the vast majority of The Federalist Papers, first published as a series of essays in newspapers explaining the new ideas for government, which are still widely cited in court cases and used for study in U.S. history and political science. In 1787-88 Hamilton was again elected to the Continental Congress. The new government got underway in 1789 and George Washington was elected president. Hamilton would be appointed Secretary of the Treasury that same year and he began at once to place the nation’s disorganized and troubled finances on a sound footing. In a series of reports (1790-91), he presented a program not only to stabilize national finances, but also to shape the future of the country as a powerful and industrial nation. Hamilton proposed establishment of a national bank, funding of the national debt, assumption of the state war debts incurred during the Revolution and the encouragement of domestic manufacturing. Hamilton’s policies soon brought him into conflict with Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Their disputes with Hamilton over his pro-business economic program, support of renewed trade with Great Britain and opposition to the excesses of the French Revolution contributed to the formation of the U.S. political party system. It pitted Hamilton, who was a Federalist, against Jefferson and Madison, who were DemocraticRepublicans.

3

During most of Washington’s administration, Hamilton’s views largely prevailed with the President, especially after 1793 when Jefferson left the government. In 1795 Hamilton’s low salary as a cabinet officer influenced him to resign from government and resume his law practice in New York City in order to secure his family’s future. Except for a stint as inspector-general of the Army (1798-1800) during the undeclared war with France, Hamilton never again held public office. While gaining stature in the practice of law, Hamilton continued to exert a powerful impact on New York as well as national politics. John Adams was elected president in 1797, and although Adams was a Federalist Hamilton did not actively support his election. However, Hamilton had a strong influence with Adams’ cabinet, having served with several members during Washington’s second term. The bitterness between Adams and Hamilton became public knowledge in 1800 when Hamilton’s poor opinion of Adams was revealed in a letter that was published through the efforts of the DemocraticRepublicans. Adams lost his reelection bid 1800 to Thomas Jefferson. In 1802 Hamilton and his family moved into a large country home he had built in a rural part of Upper Manhattan, north of New York City, which at that time was concentrated on the southern tip of Manhattan. Hamilton affectionately called his new home ―The Grange,‖ after his father’s country estate in Scotland. However, expenses incurred to buy the property and build the home seriously strained Hamilton’s finances. In the presidential election of 1800, there was a standoff between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, who were both tied in electoral votes. Hamilton threw valuable support to Jefferson, which angered Aaron Burr. In 1804, when Burr sought the governorship of New York, Hamilton again influenced his defeat. That same year, Burr, taking offense at remarks he believed to have originated with Hamilton, challenged Hamilton to a duel. The duel took place at present day Weehawken, N.J., on July 11. Mortally wounded, Hamilton died the next day. Hamilton was buried at Trinity Church in New York City and his funeral was one of the largest in New York history at that time. Hamilton was in his late forties at the time of his death. Source: http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/constitution/bio18.htm

4

A Brief History of Hamilton Grange 1800 - Hamilton bought 34 acres of farmland, picturesquely wooded and watered by two streams, in Upper Manhattan. The 200-foot elevation offered views of the Hudson River on the west and the Harlem and East Rivers on the east. 1801 - John McComb, Jr., the leading architect in New York City was hired to design the house. McComb had been to England and was familiar with the style developed by the Adam brothers there. When adapted to America, this became the ―Federal‖ style. McComb and the builder, Ezra Weeks, had also completed Gracie Mansion, which has some similarities to The Grange. McComb later went on to design the New York City Hall. 1802 - The Hamilton family moved into their new home and Hamilton named it ―The Grange,‖ a reference to his father’s ancestral home in Scotland. The cost of the land and construction of the house left Hamilton deeply in debt. The elegant interior includes two octagonal rooms; a parlor and dining room, both with tall widows, which can be used as doors. The dining room doors have mirrors on them, reflecting the view of the landscape from the windows opposite. 1804 - Hamilton was killed in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. Hamilton’s friends and supporters created a trust fund to allow the family to remain in their home. 1833 - The Grange was sold and Elizabeth Hamilton moved to Washington D. C. 1889 - The Manhattan street grid was extended north to Harlem. West 143rd Street was to be built through the site where the grange stood. However the congregation of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church was planning to move uptown and bought the grange for use as the site of their new church. Front and rear porches were removed and the house was lifted off its foundation and drawn by horses to the new site on Convent Avenue, near West 141st Street. 1924 -The American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society bought the grange and turned it into a public museum. Furniture and decorative objects associated with the Hamilton family were displayed. 1962 - The National Park Foundation purchased the house and property and transferred it to the National Park Service. Congress authorized Hamilton Grange National Memorial, contingent upon relocating it and restoring the house as Hamilton knew it in 1802-1804, which is considered its period of historic significance. 1995 - NPS developed a General Management Plan following extensive consultation and review. The preferred alternative was to move the house to nearby St. Nicholas Park, which would keep it on part of Hamilton’s original property and where it could be fully restored. Source:

http://www.nps.gov/hagr/historyculture/upload/Hamilton%20Grange_Timeline.pdf 5

How to use this guide: These lessons are based on a collection of primary source documents, maps and images. The worksheets are broken into three parts, ―Pre-Visit,‖ ―Visit-Activity‖ and ―PostVisit.‖ The ―Pre-Visit‖ worksheets will allow for important preparation before the class arrives for their visit. The ―Visit-Activity‖ worksheets will encourage the active involvement and learning of students during their visit. The ―Post-Visit‖ worksheets will reinforce the Ranger-led tour of the house ,the film and exhibits.

Essential Question: What does the Grange tell us about Alexander Hamilton’s family life and history?

6

Lesson One ooohjkfgjhfd Part I—Pre-Visit/Elementary Part II—Visit-Activity/Elementary Part III—Post Visit/Elementary Part I—Pre-Visit: Geographical Location of ―The Grange‖ Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 2 periods Aim: What can we infer about the geographical location of Hamilton Grange? Learning Objectives: Students will learn:    

Geographical location of the Grange and how the location and community changed over time. How the expansion of New York City affected the location of The Grange. How to read and interpret maps. How to write a persuasive essay.

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts. Materials:

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1A: Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1B: Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1C: Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 2A: Video Viewing Worksheet – Moving Hamilton Grange across the Street Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 2B: Video Viewing Worksheet – Moving Hamilton Grange across the Street Moving Hamilton’s house across the street (4:16): http://www.nps.gov/featurecontent/npnh/Quicktime_Compressed/HAMIL TON_MOVE_FINAL_COMPRESS_09_15_08.mov

7

Introduction: This lesson is designed to introduce students to the geographical location of Hamilton Grange and set the foundation for the eventual visit to the site. Explain why the house was moved twice and the why the new location was chosen. To begin, give the students a background of the house from the National Park Service video. Background: Video text, the words of Steve Liaise, NPS Historian, and Manhattan Sites: When the house was built in 1802, it was on open farmland, but in 1889, West 143rd Street would have been built through Hamilton Grange. So the grange was moved. It was purchased by St. Luke’s Episcopal Church. They relocated it, they changed its appearance, and they took off the porches and the front and the rear entrance. They built the church adjacent to the house, later an apartment building was erected on the opposite side of the house. In 1962, it became part of the National Park System as Hamilton Grange National Memorial with the provisions made by Congress that a (new) location be found, where it would be fully restored to represent the house as Hamilton once knew. Mini-lesson:    





8

Explain to the students that today they will learn about the geographical location of Hamilton Grange and how it changed over time. Display a map of New York City from 1802. Show geographical boundaries of New York City. Display map of Hamilton Grange area. Show geographical boundaries and the location of the grange in relation to New York City in 1802. Explain that when the grange was built, the area was open farmland; however, as the city expanded northward, new streets were built and the house had to be relocated. Display the following interactive map to illustrate the expansion of Manhattan: o Directions: Use The New York Times interactive map illustrating the growth of Manhattan over time. The interactive allows you to track the street openings from 1642. To access The New York Times interactive map click on the following link: How Manhattan’s Grid Grew (http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/21/nyregion/map-of-howmanhattan-grid-grew.html?ref=nyregion). After accessing the map, on the left navigation bar, go to Street Opening section and drag the bar to see how the streets changed since 1642. Zoom in on the map and locate the area from West 136th Street to West 155th Street. Select ―Street openings‖ and scroll the navigation bar to view the information. Once the students understand how the streets changed over time, explain that they are going to watch a video describing the relocation of Hamilton Grange.

Independent Activity/Group Activity:    

Distribute the worksheets as appropriate for students’ grade level. Distribute Worksheet 2A: Video Viewing Worksheet – Moving Hamilton Grange across the Street. Ask students to review the worksheet before viewing the video and answer the preview questions. Ask students to take notes while viewing the video to fill in the video viewing chart.

Closing/Share: Ask students to share their responses. Assessment: Ask students to share their responses from Worksheet 2B. Extended Activities: 

Using the map below as a guide, create a grid map of the area showing the current location of Hamilton Grange and neighborhood landmarks. Use graph paper to create your grid map. Make sure your grid map includes a title, legend, scale, and compass rose.

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1A Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange 9

Map Background: This is an area map of the original boundaries of Alexander Hamilton’s 34-acre estate. A grid map has been superimposed on the original map to illustrate the modern boundaries.

10

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1B Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange Observations:

Finding details and facts

What do I see?

The Grange has gone through several different location changes, study the map and list the three different locations of the Grange. 1st Location: _______________________________________________________ 2nd Location: _______________________________________________________ 3rd Location: ______________________________________________________ Using the compass rose on the map (look below and to the right of ―New site‖), answer the following questions:

Is the new location of the house north or south of the original?

Is the new location of the house east or west of the original?

11

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1C Geographical Location of Hamilton Grange

What do I wonder?

Interpretation: What do I realize?

12

Making inferences and drawing conclusions

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 2A Video Viewing Worksheet – Moving Hamilton Grange across the Street

What did you see?

What did you realized?

What did you hear?

Video: Moving Hamilton’s House across the Street

What do you wonder?

13

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Pre-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 2B Video Viewing Worksheet – Moving Hamilton Grange across the Street

Directions: Based on what you saw and heard on the video, respond to the following prompts.

I think it is important for the house to remain in the neighborhood because…

I think it is important for the house to maintain its architectural style because…

14

Part II—Visit-Activity: Learning about Hamilton’s family and the life they lived. Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: Visit time, roughly 1 hour Aim: What can we learn about Hamilton’s family and early 19th-century New York? Learning Objectives: Students will learn:   

How through objects and personal artifacts we can learn about the individual. Attempting to make a personal connection with members of the Hamilton family. Better understanding early 19th-century New York.

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts. Materials:

Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 1: Exploring ―A Founding Father’s Elegant Home‖ Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 2: Artifact Analysis Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 3: Artifact Guiding Questions

Introduction: Hamilton Grange was the former home of Alexander and Elizabeth Hamilton and their eight children. The furnishings and artwork in the home are comprised of period pieces (example: a chair made by a New York carpenter in 1800, but not associated with the Hamilton’s), reproductions (example: a copy of John Trumbull’s 1792 portrait of Hamilton), and original pieces (example: a piano that was given to Hamilton’s oldest daughter Angelica, by her aunt and namesake, Angelica Schuyler Church). What might students learn by studying these objects? How might understanding personal affects better inform students of the life and times of the Hamiltons? Are these objects similar to objects people use today or are they completely different?

15

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 1 Exploring a Founding Father’s Elegant Home

What do I see?

Who made this object?

Identify the Artifact (draw a picture of it)

What are my impressions of this object?

What I would like to know about this object?

What are this my impressions of this because... I think object was created __________________________________________________________________________________________ object?

16

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 2 Artifact Analysis

What is the artifact?___________________

Who was the maker? __________________

What is made of? _____________________

Did the maker have experience making this type of object? _____________________

What color is it? ______________________ What is its shape and size? ______________ ____________________________________ How was it made? _____________________ Why was this material chosen? _____________________________________

What was the function of the artifact? ______________________________________ How is this artifact used? _________________ _____________________________________ Does it have a practical use or is (was) it used for pleasure? ________________________

Did an individual or a group of people make the artifact? ______________________

Was the maker identified with an artistic, political or ideological movement? ______________________________________

Who was the audience?_______________________ What type of person might have used this artifact? ___________________________

Did people other than the owner use this artifact? ____________________________

Has it been used? Is it still in use? Has the use changed? ___________________________ How might the users have reacted to this artifact? _________________________ _________________________________

This artifact tells me that Alexander Hamilton…. 17

Name _______________________________ Date ___________________________

Visit-Activity/Elementary – Worksheet 3 Artifact Guiding Questions Artifact Details Title or Caption:

Type of artifact:

Date created:

Creator’s name:

Questions to consider? What impressions do I get from this artifact? What might this artifact have been used for?

Is the owner of the artifact trying to make a point? Why or Why not?

If yes, what are some of the points the owner is trying to make?

What type of person might have used this object? What type of person might have made this object?

What does this object tell us about the maker and user?

18

Part III—Post-Visit: A Community in Transition Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 2 periods Aim: What can we learn about the transitions of Hamilton Grange and New York City?

Learning Objectives: Students will learn: 

The transitions of Hamilton Grange and New York City.

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts. Materials: Post-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1A: Hamilton Grange – A Community in Transition Post-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1B: Hamilton Grange – A Community in Transition

Introduction: Hamilton Grange was the former home of Alexander and Elizabeth Hamilton and their eight children. The furnishings and artwork in the home are comprised of period pieces (example: a chair made by a New York carpenter in 1800, but not associated with the Hamilton’s), reproductions (example: a copy of John Trumbull’s 1792 portrait of Hamilton), and original pieces (example: a piano that was given to Hamilton’s oldest daughter Angelica, by her aunt and name sake, Angelica Schuyler Church). What might students learn by studying these objects? How might understanding personal affects better inform students of the life and times of the Hamilton’s? Are these objects similar to objects people use today or are they completely different?

19

Name ______________________________________ Date ___________________________

Post-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1A Hamilton Grange – A Community in Transition Background: New York City is constantly reinventing itself and its neighborhoods continue to change over time. In 1811, New York City’s streets commissioners certified a grid plan that extended about eight miles north to present day 155th street. The following poster depicts the Hamilton Grange area as a community in transition. Directions: Carefully study the poster and then respond to the questions below. Fill in the squares. What do you see?

What do I wonder?

What does the poster tell about Hamilton Grange? (cite evidence)

What do I realize?

Image Title: Alexander Hamilton Source: Print Collection portrait file. / H / Alexander Hamilton / Homes & haunts. Location: Stephen A. Schwartzman Building / Print Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs. Digital ID: 1250144, Record ID: 602454

20

http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult.cfm?trg=1&word=Hamilton%2C%20Alexander%2C%201757%2D1804%20%2D %2D%20Homes%20and%20haunts&s=3¬word=&d=&c=&f=2&k=0&lWord=&lField=&sScope=&sLevel=&sLabel=&sort=&num=0&img s=20&pNum=

21

Name _______________________

Date ____________________

Post-Visit/Elementary – Worksheet 1B Hamilton Grange – A Community in Transition

This poster shows change over time because…

22

Lesson Two Post-visit Lesson: The Grange – A Founding Father’s Elegant Home Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 2 Periods Aim: How is the Grange a reflection of Alexander Hamilton’s personal beliefs? Learning Objectives: Students will learn…     

The architectural significance of the Grange How the Grange enabled Hamilton to reinvent himself and establish himself among the landed gentry How the Grange was a reflection of Hamilton’s success How Hamilton took pride in his home and was personally involved in the construction and daily management of the Grange How to analyze primary sources

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts Materials: Video from National Park Service website and video worksheet, guiding questions, historical marker worksheet, artifact analysis worksheet, written document source analysis worksheet, Introductory Note (background on the Grange), Documents A-F (The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. ) Introduction: This lesson is designed to help students understand the personal significance of the Grange to Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton built this home after having achieved personal and political success. He named the house the Grange in honor of his father’s ancestral home and in reference to his family’s social status in Ayrshire, Scotland. The Grange gave Hamilton the opportunity to reinvent himself and it was a reflection of his success. It established him among the privileged landed gentry and reinforced his social standing in New York society. Hamilton took great pride in his home and was personally involved in the construction and management of the Grange. Motivation: Watch video on the Grange. Complete the corresponding video worksheet questions. A Founding Father’s Elegant Home (3:36)

23

Mini-lesson: 









After watching the video and discussing the guiding questions, explain to the students that today they are going to learn about Alexander Hamilton’s country estate. Explain that the Grange can help you gain additional insights into Alexander Hamilton’s character. His home was a reflection of him, his beliefs, and his success. Explain that Alexander Hamilton was highly involved in the construction and management of the Grange; therefore, by studying his home, you can get a better understanding of who he was and how he wanted to be perceived by others. Explain to the students that you are going to engage in an investigation to help them get a deeper understanding of the Grange. This investigation involves analyzing primary source documents (correspondence) and artifacts (images of the home). To begin, display an image of the Grange on the screen (provide the students with a copy of the image as well as the guiding questions). Zoom in on the image; take time to parse the different aspects of the image with the students (i.e., materials, age, condition, etc.). Discuss guiding questions with students. Distribute artifact study worksheet.

Independent Activity/Group Activity: Using information from the video, notes from the visit to the Grange, and primary sources, complete the artifact and written document analysis worksheets. Documents A-F must be analyzed using the written document analysis worksheet. These worksheets can be adapted to meet the needs of the particular grade level. Closing/Share: Students will share their findings and discuss any outstanding questions they might have. Assessment: After sharing findings from lesson, distribute writing prompt worksheet and ask students to respond to it.

24

Extended Activities: 

How should this historical event be remembered? Using the space provided, write a brief text for a historical marker to commemorate the event you have been learning about in class. Remember that you have limited space and that passersby will probably only spend a minute reading it. You will want to include the key details of the event, but also a statement of its significance. You will also want to have a banner headline. In every case, consider carefully the interpretation of the event you wish to present, whose perspective you will take, and the words you choose.

Source: www.EdwardTODonnell.com | [email protected] | © Edward T. O’Donnell, 2009 Writing Assignments 

Alexander Hamilton prided himself on entertaining guests at the Grange. Use information from the mini-lesson, primary sources, and additional research for the following writing assignments. 1. Design an invitation card inviting guests to a dinner party at the Grange. 2. Imagine that you were a guest at one of Alexander Hamilton’s dinner parties; write a diary/journal entry describing your experience. 3. Imagine that you were a guest at one of Alexander Hamilton’s dinner parties; write a thank you letter to Elizabeth and Alexander Hamilton for the invitation. 4. All writing must be well-organized (use graphic organizers and worksheets provided for planning). Make sure that the writing uses the writing process – plan, revise, edit, and rewrite.

25

Name _________________________________ Date __________________

Written Document Analysis Worksheet

1. Who wrote or created the document? How can you tell?

2. How do you think the title of the document connects to the excerpt?

3. DOCUMENT INFORMATION (There are many possible ways to answer A-E.) A. List three things the author said that you think are important: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ B. Why do you think this document was written? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ C. What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the document. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ D. List two things the document tells you about life in the United States at the time it was written: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ E. Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document: _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

26

4. How does the author appeal to the five senses? Find examples from the document and categorize them in the chart below. (The description may not appeal to all five senses – fill in as best you can.) Taste

Touch

Sight

Smell

Sound

5. Imagine your document is being published and you’ve been asked to create a cover image. Sketch a scene or draw symbols in the box below that would represent the document.

27

6. Do you think the information in this document gave you some insight into the character of Alexander Hamilton?

Why or why not? What evidence do you see? (cite the text)

Adapted from the National Archives and Records Administration’s Written Document Analysis Worksheet

28

The Grange – A Founding Father’s Elegant Home Historical Marker for the Grange HOW SHOULD THIS HISTORICAL EVENT BE REMEMBERED? Using the space provided, write a brief text for a historical marker to commemorate the event you have been learning about in class. Remember that you have limited space and that passersby will probably only spend a minute reading it. You will want to include the key details of the event, but also a statement of its significance. You will also want to have a banner headline. In every case, consider carefully the interpretation of the event you wish to present, whose perspective you will take, and the words you choose.

Source: www.EdwardTODonnell.com | [email protected] | © Edward T. O’Donnell, 2009 29

Name _________________________________ Date __________________ The Grange – A Founding Father’s Elegant Home Video Viewing Worksheet

What did you see?

What did you realize?

30

What did you hear?

A Founding Father’s Elegant Home

What do you wonder?

Background Information on the Grange Introductory Note This letter contains the first explicit reference to the Grange, Hamilton’s country home in upper Manhattan. Hamilton may have begun to plan this ―retreat,‖ as he called it, as early as 1798, when he wrote to his wife Elizabeth of a ―sweet project‖ which he had formed. The name he gave to his country estate was the same as that of his family’s ancestral home in Ayrshire, Scotland, and of his uncle James Lytton’s plantation in St. Croix.3 The land on which Hamilton built the Grange is located between the present-day Edgecombe Avenue and Hamilton Place, and it extends from 140th Street to 147th Street. Hamilton obtained this land through three separate purchases. On August 2, 1800, he bought for the price of $4,000 a rectangular lot containing fifteen acres from Jacob Schieffelin, a pharmacist, and his wife Hannah. This plot, which lay between two main thoroughfares, Bloomingdale Road and Kingsbridge Road, was on a slight rise overlooking both the Hudson River and the Harlem Valley.4 On September 27, 1800, Hamilton paid Dr. Samuel Bradhurst $750 for three acres which adjoined the northern boundary of Hamilton’s first purchase.5 On January 14, 1803, Hamilton obtained from Bradhurst an additional seventeen acres adjacent to the first Bradhurst purchase. This land was not paid for until after Hamilton’s death. On April 11, 1805, John B. Church, John Laurance, and Matthew Clarkson, the trustees to whom Hamilton had conveyed the Grange shortly before his duel [39]with Aaron Burr,6 paid Bradhurst $3,648.56.7 The entire estate consisted of thirty-five acres, including a farmhouse, a barn, and several outbuildings.8

31

To design the Grange, Hamilton hired John McComb, Jr., a New York City architect and builder, who also designed New York City Hall and Castle Garden on the Battery. McComb first renovated the old farmhouse, which was located on the northwestern corner of the Schieffelin purchase and which Hamilton and his family used until the Grange was built.9 It is not clear when the Grange was completed, but in June 1801, McComb submitted a ―Proposal for finishing General Hamilton’s Country House.‖10 Hamilton’s earliest correspondence written at the Grange [40] is dated August, 1802, 11 and he first mentions entertaining friends at the estate in September 1802.12 Although Hamilton’s accounts for the Grange are not complete, those records that have survived indicate that he spent at least $16,000 on the Grange during his life and that he owed an additional $3,500 to Bradhurst at the time of his death for the purchase he had made in early 1803. Hamilton paid $2,830.70 to McComb13 and approximately $8,500 to Ezra Weeks, a New York builder who constructed the house.14 With the remaining $11,000 Hamilton paid for building materials, workmen’s wages, furnishings, and garden supplies.15 On July 1, 1804, shortly before his death, Hamilton estimated that his ―establishment in the Country at Harlem‖ was worth approximately $25,000.16 The Grange was a two-story, square building faced with white clapboards. On its two sides were verandas, or ―piazzas‖, and four chimneys were at the points of a quadrangle within the structure. The basement contained a kitchen, family dining room, ironing room, and storeroom. The first floor was entered by a hall which had a staircase to its left and a library to its right and which opened into two octagonal rooms, the parlor and the other the dining room. Behind these rooms were two guest rooms. The third floor consisted of a family living room and three bedrooms.17 On April 26, 1804, James Kent, a judge of the New York Supreme Court, described his visit to the Grange in the following letter to his wife, Elizabeth: ―I went out with General Hamilton on Saturday, the 21st, and stayed till Sunday evening. There was a furious and dreadful storm on Saturday night. It blew almost a hurricane. His house stands high and was much exposed, and I am certain that in the second story, where I slept, it rocked like a cradle. He never appeared before so friendly and amiable. I was alone, and he treated 32

me with a minute attention that I did not suppose he knew how to bestow. His manners [41] were also very delicate and chaste. His daughter,18 who is nineteen years old, has a very uncommon simplicity and modesty of deportment, and he appeared in his domestic state the plain, modest, and affectionate father and husband.‖19 In neither size nor architecture was the Grange comparable to the famous plantation mansions occupied by some of Hamilton’s contemporaries among southern slaveholders and politicians. In the words of one of Hamilton’s grandsons, the Grange ―was never an architectural triumph, although it is a type of the comfortable house of the period.‖20 And this was not surprising, for Hamilton remained a city dweller until the day he died, and the Grange was essentially a ―retreat‖ and a hobby rather than the center around which his entire life revolved.

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-25-02-0028-0001 Original source: Volume XXV: July 1800–April 1802

33

Document

A

To Elizabeth Hamilton Philadelphia Nov [19] 1798

I am always very happy My Dear Eliza when I can steal a few moments to sit down and write to you. You are my good genius; of that kind which the ancient Philosophers called a familiar; and you know very well that I am glad to be in every way as familiar as possible with you. I have formed a sweet project, of which I will make you my confident when I come to New York, and in which I rely that you will cooperate with me cheerfully. ―You may guess and guess and guess again Your guessing will be still in vain.‖ But you will not be the less pleased when you come to understand and realize the scheme.1 Adieu best of wives & best of mothers. Heaven ever bless you & me in you AH

Mrs. Hamilton

ALS, Lloyd W. Smith Collection, Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, New Jersey. 1 This may be a reference to H’s plans for a house in northern Manhattan which he subsequently built and named “The Grange.” In any event, a history of “The Grange” states: “This was Hamilton’s first mention of his plans for the acquisition of land on which he was to build a country house” (Eric Sloane and Edward Anthony, Mr. Daniels and the Grange [New York, 1968], 41). Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-22-02-0154 Original source: Volume XXII: July 1798–March 1799 34

To Elizabeth Hamilton

Document

B [January 18, 1801] Thirty three Miles from N York

I intended to have reached Croton this Evening and would have done it without difficulty had not a very violent shower of Rain [32] obliged me to stop at this place. If the storm subsides I hope to be at Albany1 on Wednesday. The roads are too bad for you to venture this part of the road in your carriage if you can possibly avoid it. The plan of going to Poughkepsie is best. Don’t forget to visit the Grange.2 From what I saw there it is very important the drains should be better regulated. There must be one from the South side into that already made & I fear one from the Northern Quarter into the high road. The Clay if to be had must by no means be neglected. And sand must be brought for the next Springs work. You must leave in particular charge of Philip3 what you cannot yourself accomplish. Adieu my very dear Eliza AH

Sunday Evening 5 o’clock

ALS, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress. 1 H was going to Albany to attend the January, 1801, session of the New York Supreme Court, which convened on January 20. In HCLW, X, 421, this letter is dated “Feb., 1801.” 2 See the introductory note to Philip Schuyler to H, July 17, 1800. 3 Philip Hamilton, H’s oldest child. SOURCE: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-25-02-0172. Original source: Volume XXV: July 1800–April 1802

35

Document

To Governor Morris My Dear Sir

C

[Grange, New York, September 4, 1802]

I fully intended to have dined with you to day but going to Town the two last days & forgetting that I ought to observe a regimen, I have brought back in some degree the complaint which lately annoyed me & which requires to be well watched. This must deprive me of the pleasure of seeing you. I send Schedules of the papers2 required of Tillier, all which have been put into my hands—the bill to remain ’till the close of [46]the affair, the other documents to be delivered to your order. I also send a draft of the Trust deed. It endeavors to comply with your suggestion as far as can be done without running foul of the danger desired to be avoided. Yrs. very truly AH

Grange Sep 4th.

Your guests3 are invited to dine with us Thursday next. Will you make one? ALS, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress. 1 For an explanation of the contents of this letter, see H to Morris, August 25, 1802; Morris to H, August 31, 1802. 2 None of the documents mentioned in this and the succeeding paragraph has been found. 3 Robert and Mary Morris.

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-26-02-0001-0039 Original source: Volume XXVI: 1 May 1802–23 October 1804 and Additional Documents 1774–1799

36

Document (Excerpt)

D

To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Grange (NY) My Dear Sir

Dec. 29. 1802 1

A garden, you know, is a very usual refuge of a disappointed politician. Accordingly, I have purchased a few acres about 9 Miles from Town, have built a house and am cultivating a Garden. The melons in your country are very fine. Will you have the goodness to send me some seed both of the Water & Muss Melons? My daughter2 adds another request, which is for three or four of your peroquets. She is very fond of birds. If there be any thing in this quarter the sending of which can give you pleasure, you have only to name them. As Farmers a new source of sympathy has risen between us; and I am pleased with every thing in which our likings and tastes can be approximated. Ever Yrs Adieu My Dear Sir AH

Mrs. H joins me in affectionate Compliments to Mrs. Pinckney. 1 In Hamilton, Intimate Life, 346, this letter is dated “December 20, 1802.” 2 Angelica Hamilton, H’s older daughter, was eighteen years old in 1802. According to Allan McLane Hamilton, “Upon receipt of the news of her brother’s death in the Eacker duel, she suffered so great a shock that her mind became permanently impaired, and although taken care of by her devoted mother for a long time there was no amelioration in her condition, and she was finally placed under the care of Dr. [James] MacDonald of Flushing, and remained in his charge until her death at the age of seventy-three” (Hamilton, Intimate Life, 219). For information on the duel between Philip Hamilton and George I. Eacker, see Benjamin Rush to H, November 26, 1801.

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Di gital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-26-02-0001-0056. Original source: Volume XXVI: 1 May 1802–23 October 1804 and Additional Documents 1774–1799

37

Document

To Elizabeth Hamilton My Dear Eliza

E

Claverack1 [New York] Oct 14. 1803

I arrived here this day, in about as good health as I left home though somewhat fatigued. There are some things necessary to be done which I omitted mentioning to you.2 I wish the Carpenters to make and insert two Chimnies for ventilating the Ice-House, each about two feet Square & four feet long half above and half below the ground—to have a cap on the top sloping downwards so that the rain may not easily enter—the aperture for letting in and out the air to be about a foot and a half square in the side immediately below the cap (see figure on the other side). Let a separate compost bed be formed near the present one; to consist of 3 barrels full of the clay which I bought3 6 barrels of black mould 2 waggon loads of the best clay on the Hill opposite the Quakers4 place this side of Mrs. Verplanks5 (the Gardener must go for it himself) and one waggon load of pure cow-dung. Let these be well and repeatedly mixed and pounded together to be made use of hereafter for the Vines. I hope the apple trees will have been planted so as to profit by this moderate and wet weather. If not done—Let Tough6 be reminded that a temporary fence is to be put up along the declivity of the Hill from the Kings bridge road to the opposite wood so as to prevent the cattle injuring the young trees—the fence near the entrance to the Helicon spring ought for the same reason to be attended to. The materials of the fence taken down in making the Kitchen Garden & some rubbish which may be picked up will answer. Remember that the piazzas are also to be caulked & that additional accommodations for the pidgeons are to be made. [160]

You see I do not forget the Grange.7 No that I do not; nor any one that inhabits it. Accept yourself my tenderest affection. Give my love to your Children & remember me to Cornelia.8 Adieu my darling AH

Mrs. H

ALS, MS Division, New York Public Library.

38

1 H was in Claverack in his capacity as counsel for the heirs of John Van Rensselaer, who had brought actions against those individuals who were charged with occupying his lands in Claverack without acknowledging themselves as tenants and without accepting leases. For a discussion of the controversy involving the Claverack lands, see Goebel, Law Practice, forthcoming volumes. 2 The remainder of H’s letter concerns the Grange, his country house in upper Manhattan. See the introductory note to Philip Schuyler to H, July 17, 1800. 3 An entry in H’s Cash Book, 1795–1804, under the date of October 8, 1803, reads: “Grange (Clay) 10” (AD, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress). 4 Joseph Mott. 5 Cornelia Verplanck, the widow of Gulian Verplanck, president of the Bank of New York from 1791 until his death in 1799, owned property from 121st Street to 127th Street on the west side of Bloomingdale Road. 6 For H’s payments to William Tuff for his services, see Tuff’s account in H’s Cash Book, 1795–1804 (AD, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress). 7 On November 20, 1803, Rufus King, who had returned to New York City from London in July, 1803, wrote to Christopher Gore: “Hamilton is at the head of his profession, and in the annual rect. of a handsome income. He lives wholly at his house 9. miles from town so that on an average he must spend three hours a day on the road going and returning between his house and town, which he performs four or five days each week. I don’t perceive that he meddles or feels much concerning Politics. He has formed very decided opinions of our System as well as of our administration, and as the one and the other has the voice of the country, he has nothing to do but to prophecy!” (King, The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, IV, 326). 8 Cornelia Morton, Elizabeth Hamilton’s youngest sister and the wife of Washington Morton.

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-26-02-0001-0125. Original source: Volume XXVI: 1 May 1802–23 October 1804 and Additional Documents 1774–1799

39

Document

From John McComb, Junior 1

F

[New York, June 22, 1801] Proposal for finishing General Hamiltons, country House—Vizt. To Build two Stacks of Chimneys to contain eight fire places,

exclusive of those in Cellar Story.

To fit in with brick all the outside walls of the 1st. & 2d. Stories, also all the interior walls that Seperate the two Octagon Rooms and the two rooms over them fr the Hall & other Rooms in both Stories. To Lath & plaster the Side walls of the 1st. & 2d. Stories with two coats & set in white or prepared for pting or papering as General Hamilton may direct. To Lath & plaster the ceilings of 1st. & 2d. Stories with two coats & set in white. To Plaster the interior walls which seperate the Octagon Rooms in both Stories, to be finished white, or as General Hamilton may chose. To Lath & plaster all the other partitions in both Stories. To Lath & plaster the ceiling of the cellar Story throughout. To Plaster the Side walls of Kitchen, Ironing Room, Hall, & passage, & to point & white wash the Stone & brick walls of the other part of Cellar Story. To Point the outside walls of cellar Story, and to fill in under the Sills. To Lay both Kitchen hearths with brick placed edge ways. To put a strong Iron back in the Kitchen fire place five feet long by 2 ft. 9 inches high. To put another Iron back in the Ironing Room 3’6" by 2’9". To Place two Iron Cranes in the Kitchen fire Place & an Iron door for the oven mouth. The Rooms, Hall, & passage of the first Story to have neat Stucco cornices—those of Octagon Rooms of Best Kind (but not inriched). To put up two Setts of Italian Marble in the Octagon Rooms, Such as General Hamilton may chose—and Six setts of Stone Chimney pieces for the other Rooms. The Four fire places in the two Octogan rooms & the two rooms over them to have Iron Backs & jambs, & four fire places to have backs only. To lay the foundations for eight piers for the Piazza.* Mr. McComb to find at his own expence all the Matireals requisite for the afore described work and execute it complete in a good & workmanlike manner for One thousand Eight hundred & Seventy five Dollars.

40

General Hamilton to have all the Materials carted and to have [391]all the Carpenters work done at his expence. General Hamilton is to find the workmen their board or to allow Shillings pr. day for each days work in lieu thereof. John McComb Junr New York 22d. June 1801 ADS, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress.

SOURCE: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/ARHN-01-25-02-0218 Original source: Volume XXV: July 1800–April 1802

41

Lesson Three Post-visit Lesson: Alexander Hamilton the Intellectual Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 2 Periods Aim: What does Alexander Hamilton’s study tell us about him? Learning Objectives: Students will learn…   

What the objects in Alexander Hamilton’s library can tell us about him How to study and analyze objects critically Students will engage in activities designed to help them understand Alexander Hamilton the person

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts Materials: Images from Hamilton Grange, object analysis worksheets, artwork observation worksheet, artwork recording sheets Introduction: This lesson is designed to help the students understand Alexander Hamilton as an intellectual. The students will observe and study some of the objects found in Alexander Hamilton’s library to get a better understanding of the materials that were around during that time period, how the materials were used, and to gain some insight into everyday life. Do Now (Motivation): Show the students an image and ask them what do they think the object is and how is this object used?

42

Mini-lesson:  



Explain to the students that today you are going to look at some objects from Alexander Hamilton’s study to get a better sense of what he was like. Tell students that objects give us a more complete picture of Hamilton. Although his writing helps us understand his thinking, the objects can give us additional clues about his daily life. However, we must keep in mind that objects have limitations and must be used in conjunction with other sources. Display the objects on a screen and distribute copies of the images and object analysis worksheets. Take the time to parse the different aspects of the artifacts with the students.

Independent Activity/Group Activity: Complete the object analysis worksheets using information from the mini-lesson as well as notes from the visit to the Grange. These worksheets can be adapted to meet the needs of the particular grade level. Closing/Share: Students will share their findings and discuss any outstanding questions they might have. Assessment: Ask students to write a paragraph describing what they learned about Alexander Hamilton based on the objects found in his study. Extended Activities: Distribute Artwork Observation Worksheet. Ask students to select one object from Hamilton Grange and conduct a further research and analysis of it. Writing Activity Alexander Hamilton was an intellectual and a writer. His writings are well documented and this has enabled us to have a more complete picture of him as an individual. Share with the students a letter written by Hamilton and ask the students to respond to it. The response letter should be well organized and follow the writing process (plan, revise, edit, and rewrite). It should reflect relevant and accurate historical information.

43

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Analyzing Objects to Tell Stories Observation – What I see. Shapes:

Size:

Colors:

Textures:

Details:

44

Name _______________________________________________ Date ___________________ Draw your object

Interpretation – What I think about the object How it was used:

Who used it:

When it was used:

Inference: What can I infer about the person that used the object?

45

Why it was used:

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Hamilton Grange – Recording Sheet

Object: Terrestrial Globe with stand Notes I notice:

I think:

It makes me feel:

Because:

46

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Hamilton Grange – Recording Sheet

Object: 1797 Georgian sterling silver inkstand

Notes: I notice:

I think:

It makes me feel:

Because:

47

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Hamilton Grange – Recording Sheet

Object: Reproduction of a 18th century bookcase

Notes I notice:

I think:

It makes me feel:

Because:

48

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Hamilton Grange – Recording Sheet

Object: Reproduction of Hamilton's Lap Desk

Notes I notice:

I think:

It makes me feel:

Because:

49

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Hamilton Grange – Recording Sheet

Object: Reproduction of Hamilton desk

Notes I notice:

I think:

It makes me feel:

Because:

50

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________

Analyzing Objects to Tell Stories Observation – What I see. Shapes:

Size:

Colors:

Textures:

Details:

51

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________

Draw your object

Interpretation – What I think How it was used:

Who used it:

When it was used:

Inference: What can I infer about the person that used the object?

52

Why it was used:

Name ___________________________________ Date ____________________ Artwork Observation Worksheet Observation – What I see. (identify facts and details) Create a quick sketch of a detail of the artwork in the box below. You may draw stick figures.

Interpretation – What I think. (make an inference or draw a conclusion) Noun

Adjective

Write down an object you see.

Write two words that describe this object.

Write out a descriptive paragraph describing the object.

53

Lesson Four Post-visit Lesson: Portrait of a man – Picturing Hamilton Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 1 Period Aim: What does this portrait tell us about Alexander Hamilton? Objectives: Students will …   

Learn to analyze portraits and interpret an artist point-of-view Analyze a portrait of Alexander Hamilton to understand how the image reflect the historical period in which it was created Infer whether this portrait of Hamilton reflected the public’s perception or misconception of him

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts Materials: Print of Alexander Hamilton by Thomas Hamilton Crawford, c. 1932. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Interpreting / Analyzing Visuals Worksheet, Painting Observation Worksheet, Venn-Diagram Introduction: Given Alexander Hamilton’s personal background, he had an image he wanted to portray. This lesson was designed to help the students understand the image Alexander Hamilton wanted to portray of himself. Do Now (Motivation): Show students image of Alexander Hamilton and ask what does his body language tell us about him?

54

Mini-lesson: Analyzing Primary Sources: Visuals    

    

Remind students that visuals such as photographs, illustrations, and paintings are primary sources and they can help us understand history. Make sure that the students understand that a full understanding and interpretation of history requires both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources describe American history from many different points of view. The author, place, date, and the historical context are found at the beginning of each document. Remind students that photographs, illustrations, and paintings are primary sources that were taken or used at the time of an event by the people who experienced it. When analyzing images, ask: o What does this image show? What is the purpose of this image? Who took this photograph, painted, or illustrated this image? o What is the author's point of view? How does that point of view affect the image? o What does the image tell us about the people of this era? Explain that today we’re going to look at a portrait of Alexander Hamilton to understand the persona he wanted to portray. Project the image of Alexander Hamilton on a screen. Point curser to different parts of the image to analyze the details. Discuss the painting. Distribute the painting analysis worksheet.

Independent Activity/Group Activity: In pairs or individually, examine the portrait and write down your observations. (use Interpreting / Analyzing Visuals Worksheet Paintings). These worksheets can be adapted to meet the needs of the particular grade level. Closing/Share: Students will share their findings and discuss any outstanding questions they students might have. Assessment: Ask students to write a reflection explaining whether this portrait has changed their perception of Alexander Hamilton. Extended Activities: Create a gallery exhibition of Alexander Hamilton. Ask students to research additional portraits of and complete analysis worksheets for each portrait. After completing the analyses, ask the students to write their own label text for the exhibition. The writing should be well organized and follow the writing process (plan, revise, edit, rewrite). Writing Assignment – Select two portraits of Alexander Hamilton. Write an essay comparing and contrasting both portraits. Use the portrait analysis worksheets to analyze portraits and Venn-Diagram to compare and contrast the portraits. The

55

writing should be well organized and follow the writing process (plan, revise, edit, rewrite).

Portrait of a man - Picturing Hamilton

Print of Alexander Hamilton By Thomas Hamilton Crawford, c. 1932. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

56

Name _________________________________ Date __________________ Elementary School – Photo Analysis worksheet

Portrait of a man: Document Analysis Directions: Carefully study the poster and then respond to the questions below. Fill in the squares.

What do you see?

What does the painting tell you about Alexander Hamilton?

How does the painting make you feel?

What questions are you still wondering about?

I can infer that Alexander Hamilton...

57

Name ____________________________________________ Date _________________ Painting Observation Worksheet Observation – What I see. (Identify facts and details) Create a quick sketch of a detail of the artwork in the box below. You may draw stick figures.

Interpretation – What I think. (make an inference or draw a conclusion) Noun

Adjective

Who you think the person in this painting might be?

Write four words that describe this person.

Write out a descriptive paragraph describing the object.

Name _________________________________ Date __________________ 58

Venn-Diagram – Portrait Analysis Directions: Complete the Venn-Diagram using information you gathered from mini-lesson, research, and visit to Hamilton Grange.

Portrait (Title)

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _____________

59

Portrait (Title)

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ____________

Lesson Five Post-visit Lesson: Alexander Hamilton and Slavery Subject: Social Studies Grade: Elementary Duration: 2 periods Aim: What was Alexander Hamilton’s view toward slavery? Learning Objectives: Students will learn…    

How Hamilton’s West Indian upbringing shaped his views toward race and slavery About Hamilton’s involvement in the manumission movement How to analyze primary sources Analyze U.S. Census Data from 1800 through 1830 to understand the slave population in NYC and how it changed over time

New York Common Core and Social Studies Standards: See appendix charts Materials: Primary Sources (5 Documents and corresponding worksheets): #1: Alexander Hamilton - letter to John Jay, [14 March 1779], #2: Attendance at a Meeting of the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, #3: Alexander Hamilton - ―New York Ratifying Convention. Remarks,‖ Francis Childs’s Version, June 27, 1788, #4: Alexander Hamilton - A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress, from the Calumnies of their Enemies; In Answer to A Letter, Under the Signature of A. W.Farmer., #5: Account with John Barker Church, Document #6: Mourning Scarf, Do Now (motivational worksheet): New York City Runaway Slave Advertisement, Case Study worksheet, Census Data Analysis Worksheets. Introduction: This lesson is designed to introduce students to Alexander Hamilton and discuss his views on slavery and race. To begin, discuss with the students how he was greatly shaped by his West Indian upbringing. Hamilton was raised in St. Croix an island whose economy was highly dependent on sugar and slave labor. As a clerk for the firm of Nicolas Cruger, Hamilton witnessed first-hand the horrors of slavery. This experience probably influenced his opposition to slavery.

60

Hamilton arrived in New York City in 1773. At this time New York City was the second largest city in the thirteen colonies and home to many slaves. Hamilton was a complex character and a product of his time. Like many of his contemporaries, his actions sometimes conflicted with his personal convictions. In spite of this paradox, Hamilton’s views on race and slavery were fairly progressive. In 1785, Hamilton became involved in the anti-slavery movement and one of the founding members of the New-York Manumission Society. This organization advocated the abolition of slavery and protection of free blacks. Although Hamilton did not get to see the complete abolition of slavery in his lifetime, he did get to witness the first step towards its erosion. The abolition of slavery in New York State was a gradual process. New York outlawed the importation of slaves in 1788. By 1790, the slave population of New York State was about six percent. In 1799, New York passed the state’s first Gradual Emancipation law. This law freed children of slaves born after July 4, 1799. However, the children were required to work as servants for their mother’s owners until they reach the age of 28 for men, and 25 for women. In 1817 a law was passed to abolish slavery by July 4, 1827. Although the vast majority of slaves were freed by 1827, it was not until 14 years later that slavery was completely abolished. In 1841, New York State revoked a clause that enabled non-state residents to hold their slaves for as long as nine months. Motivation (Do Now): What does this ad tell us about New York City?

Mini-lesson: 



61

Discuss the runaway slave ad and explain to the students that today they are going to investigate and learn about Alexander Hamilton and his views toward race and slavery. Alexander Hamilton was greatly shaped by his West Indian upbringing. He was raised in St. Croix, an island whose economy was highly dependent on sugar and slave labor. As a clerk for the firm of Nicolas Cruger, Hamilton witnessed firsthand the horrors of slavery. Like many of his contemporaries, Hamilton was the byproduct of his time and sometimes his actions conflicted with personal beliefs.

 



Describe slavery in New York during the early years of the United States. Explain to the students that Alexander Hamilton was a member of the New-York Manumission Society, an organization that worked toward the abolition of slavery in New York. Discuss some of that laws that were enacted to gradually abolish slavery in the state.

Independent Activity/Group Activity: Students will read primary sources to evaluate Alexander Hamilton’s views on race and slavery. Ask students to read documents 1 through 6 and respond to the corresponding questions. After analyzing the documents, students are to complete the case study activity. Distribute the worksheets as appropriate for students’ grade level. Closing/Share: Students will share their findings and discuss any remaining questions at the end of the lesson. Assessment: Students should summarize their findings in their notebooks. Extended Activities: Understanding Sequence: Using capzles.com, create a timeline depicting the history of slavery in New York from the time Hamilton arrived in New York until its abolition. Attach images that represent different time periods, add dates and descriptions of the images to the timeline. Making Sense of Numbers and Interpreting Data: These activities were designed to help the students get a deeper understanding of slavery in New York State during the time of Alexander Hamilton. By using U.S. Census data from 1800 through 1830, the students can investigate the changes that took place over that period of time. Teachers can adapt the activities in the worksheets to meet the needs of their particular students or mini-lesson. Writing Activity: Alexander Hamilton: Pro-slavery or anti-slavery





62

Research Alexander Hamilton’s views on the issue of slavery and race. Use the primary sources, information provided during mini-lesson as well as graphic organizers to determine Alexander Hamilton’s views. After gathering all your data, write an expository essay evaluating Alexander Hamilton’s views. Provide relevant evidence and logical reasoning to support your argument. Make sure that you plan, revise, and edit your writing before submitting final draft. Imagine that you are Alexander Hamilton; write an opinion piece in opposition or support of slavery. Use relevant information, evidence, and logical reasoning to support your opinion. Make sure that you plan, revise, and edit your writing before submitting final draft.

Name _____________________________ Date ___________________ Motivation (Do Now): What does this ad tell us about New York City?

63

Name _____________________________ Date ___________________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Document # 1: Alexander Hamilton - letter to John Jay, [14 March 1779] ―I mention this, because I frequently hear it objected to the scheme of embodying negroes that they are too stupid to make soldiers. This is so far from appearing to me a valid objection that I think their want of cultivation4 (for their natural faculties are probably5 as good as ours) ...‖

Vocabulary

 objected to (argued against)  embodying (classifying)  faculties (abilities) Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011. Did Hamilton consider blacks to be as intelligent as whites?

64

This is true because (write the evidence)…

Name __________________________ Date _________________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Document # 2: Attendance at a Meeting of the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves New York, February 4, 1785. On this date Hamilton attended an organization meeting of the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves held at the Coffee House in New York City. After the proposed constitution of the Society was read and adopted, the Society ―Ordered—That Colonel Hamilton, Colonel Troup2 and Mr. Matlack3 be a Committee to Report a Line of Conduct to be recommended to the Members of the Society in relation to any Slaves possessed by them;...‖ Vocabulary manumission: a freeing or being freed from slavery; liberation, emancipation ―Minutes of the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves,‖ New York Historical Society, New York City. 1 At the first meeting of the society, held on January 25, 1785, a committee was appointed ―to draw up a set of Rules for the Government of the said Society,‖ and ―the Meeting was then adjourned to the 4th day of February next‖ (ibid.). H was one of thirty-two men who attended the meeting on February 4. 2 Robert Troup. 3 White Matlack.

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011.

Alexander Hamilton was a member of the Manumission Society and was present at the February 4, 1785 meeting. What does this tell you about his feelings toward slavery?

65

This is true because (write the evidence)…

Name _______________________ Date ___________________________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Document #3: Alexander Hamilton - ―New York Ratifying Convention. Remarks,‖ Francis Childs’s Version, June 27, 1788 ―… It will however by no means be admitted, that the slaves are considered altogether as property. They are men, though degraded to the condition of slavery. They are persons known to the municipal laws of the states which they inhabit, as well as to the laws of nature. But representation and taxation go together—and one uniform rule ought to apply to both. ‖

Vocabulary

    

degraded (lessen) municipal (city, community) inhabit (live in) laws of nature (natural laws, laws not made by man) uniform (same)

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011.

What argument does Hamilton make about value of slaves?

66

This is true because (write the evidence)…

Name _________________________ Date _________________________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources

Document #4: Alexander Hamilton - A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress, from the Calumnies of their Enemies; In Answer to A Letter, Under the Signature of A. W.Farmer. ―That Americans are entitled to freedom is incontestable upon every rational principle. All men have one common original: they participate in one common nature, and consequently have one common right. No reason can be assigned why one man should exercise any power, or pre-eminence over his fellow creatures more than another; unless they have voluntarily vested him with it. Since then, Americans have not by any act of theirs empowered the British Parliament to make laws for them, it follows they can have no just authority to do it.‖

Vocabulary:      

entitled (entitled) – given the right incontestable (incontestable) - certain rational – sound of mind pre-eminence - authority vested – entrusted/give authority to impowered (empowered) - allow

Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011.

How did Hamilton see any connections between the struggle for independence from Great Britain and struggle against slavery?

67

This is true because (write the evidence)…

Name ____________________________

Date ___________

Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Worksheet #4A: Account with John Barker Church Directions: Carefully study the document below and then respond to the questions that follow. Fill in the squares.

Document 5: Account with John Barker Church

An entry in H’s Cash Book, 1795–1804, for May 29, 1797, reads: ―John B. Church Dr. to Cash paid for negro woman & child 225‖ (AD, Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress). Source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton Digital Edition, ed. Harold C. Syrett. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2011.

68

Name _____________________________

Date _____________

Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Worksheet for document #5: Account with John Barker Church Directions: Carefully study the document “Account with John Barker Church‖ and fill in the squares below.

69

What do you see?

What does the document tell about Alexander Hamilton?

What do I wonder?

What do I realize?

Name ____________________________ Date ______________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Directions: Carefully study document #6 “Mourning Scarf” and fill in the squares Follow.

70

Name ____________________________ Date ______________ Elementary School - Activity Analyzing Primary Sources Directions: Carefully study document #6 “Mourning Scarf” and fill in the squares Follow.

71

What do you see?

What does the poster tell me about Alexander Hamilton?

What do I wonder?

What do I realize?

Name ______________________________ Date ______________ Elementary School – ―Case Study of Alexander Hamilton: Pro-slavery or anti-slavery‖ Activity: Research Alexander Hamilton’s views on the issue of slavery and race. Use the scale below to determine Alexander Hamilton’s views. In the space provided, list as much evidence as you can from the five documents provided as well as your research to support each point of view. After you evaluate the evidence, decide which way the scale would tip.

ProSlavery

AntiSlavery

Documents (cite the evidence)

Documents (cite the evidence)

Based on the scale above, I think Alexander Hamilton ….

72

Name _________________________________________________ Date ___________________________ Activity - Making Sense of Numbers -- Elementary School What was New York City's population like when Alexander Hamilton lived at the Grange?

Directions: Study the map for several minutes. Form an overall impression of the map and then examine individual items on the map. Answer the questions below based on your observations of the following map.

Data Observation (finding facts and details): 1.

Based on the title, what is this map mostly about?

2.

List the percentage of the total population that was enslaved a. New York County __________________________ b. Kings County _______________________________ c. Queens County ______________________________ d. Richmond County ___________________________

3.

Which county had the smallest percentage of slaves? ________________________________________

73

Name _________________________________________________ Date ___________________________

Data Interpretation (making inferences and drawing conclusions)

WHAT DO YOU SEE?

WHAT QUESTIONS DOES THE MAP RAISE IN YOUR MIND?

74

WHAT DOES THE MAP TELL YOU ABOUT SLAVERY IN NEW YORK COUNTY?

WHAT CAN YOU INFER ABOUT LIFE IN NEW YORK COUNTY DURING THIS TIME PERIOD?

Appendix: Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies Elementary K-5

The charts show how each lesson in this Teacher’s Guide meets key components of the New York State Common Core Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies K-5 and 6-8. For grades 9-12 reference and further information reference Common Core Library. http://schools.nyc.gov/Academics/CommonCoreLibrary/default.htm Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies - K-5 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, K–5

Lesson 1

2

3

4

5

1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

X

X

X

X

X

2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

X

X

X

X

X

3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

X

X

X

X

X

Key Ideas and Details

X

Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

X

5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

75

X

X

X

X

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies - K-5 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, K–5

Lesson 1

2

3

4

5

7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*

X

X

X

X

X

8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

X

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

X

X

X

Responding to Literature 11. Respond to literature by employing knowledge of literary language, textual features, and forms to read and comprehend, reflect upon, and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres and a wide spectrum of American and world cultures.

76

X

X

X

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies - Grades K-5 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, K–5

Lesson 1

2

3

4

5

1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

X

X

X

X

X

2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

X

X

X

X

X

3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

X

X

Production and Distribution of Writing

77

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

X

X

X

X

X

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

X

X

X

X

X

6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

X

X

X

X

X

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies - Grades K-5 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, K-5

Lesson 1

2

3

4

5

7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

X

X

X

X

X

8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

X

X

X

X

X

9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. Responding to Literature 11. Develop personal, cultural, textual, and thematic connections within and across genres as they respond to texts through written, digital, and oral presentations, employing a variety of media and genres.

78

The following charts show how each lesson in this Teacher’s Guide meets key components of the New York State Social Studies Standards. NEW YORK STATE SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARDS

Lesson 1

2

3

4

5

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Standard 1 - History of the United States and New York Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York. Standard 2 - World History Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives. Standard 3 – Geography Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live—local, national, and global—including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth’s surface. Standard 4 – Economics Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the U.S. and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and nonmarket mechanisms. Standard 5 - Civics, Citizenship, and Government Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments, the governmental system of the United States, and other nations, the United States. Constitution, the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy, and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation. 79

X

Blank!

80

Loading...

Hamilton Grange National Memorial - National Park Service

Hamilton Grange National Memorial Educator’s Guide Elementary School Version Visiting Hamilton Grange Introduction: Alexander Hamilton was born and ...

3MB Sizes 2 Downloads 26 Views

Recommend Documents

Yosemite National Park - National Park Service
We are excited that you are joining the team at Yosemite and are appreciative of the service you are donating to the Par

Richmond National Battlefield Park - National Park Service
Mar 31, 2012 - Resumen. Capital en guerra, 1861 a 1865. La historia de Richmond no es el simple cuento de una gran batal

Park Map - National Park Service
Mt Storm King. 4534ft. 1382m. Sourdough. Mtn. 4600ft. 1402m. Striped Peak. 1166ft. 355m. Mt Appleton. 6000ft. 1829m. Bog

Arizona - National Park Service
The person who has been given credit in this century for establishing the place called. Arizona ... Miranda, and Juan Do

dinosaur national monument - National Park Service
9005ft. 2745m. 6544ft. 1995m. 8717ft. 2657m. 8575ft. 2614m. 8565ft. 2611m. 8175ft. 2492m. 8318ft. 2535m. 7711ft. 2350m.

Maps - Yosemite National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
Feb 7, 2017 - Map of Yosemite National Park. Yosemite National Park. Download a simple park map (highlighting campground

Plan Your Visit - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
Sep 21, 2017 - Bears inhabit the entire park, not just the backcountry: learn how to travel safely in bear country. Cell

Trip Planner - National Park Service
Nov 17, 2017 - Phoenix, Arizona, and Las Vegas, Nevada, to the South and North rims. 888-215-3105 flagshuttle.com ... Fl

golden gate - National Park Service
consul general of Spain in San Francisco, José Urbina, contacted institutions in his country so that copies of importan

dawes act - National Park Service
therefore be considered as the Magna Carta of the Indians of our country." Alice Fletcher. "The Dawes Act was a way to b