Alcatraz Uncovered - National Park Service

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he Golden Gate National Parks—with their fragile indigenous habitats and historic landmarks, ancient redwood groves and dramatic coastal preserve are also settings for one of the largest and most inspiring urban outdoor classrooms. Deeply committed to young people, the National Park Service, Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, and Presidio Trust partner with educators, students, and the community to design programs that encourage inquiry-based learning linked to school curriculum. The goals and principles of the K–12 program confirm Golden Gate’s commitment to authentic, inclusive, and relevant education. Crissy Field Center, located on the Presidio of San Francisco, is a partnership project of the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and the National Park Service. The Center offers multicultural programs that actively engage us with our environments and promote collaborations in building a more sustainable and environmentally just society. The Presidio Trust’s mission is to preserve and enhance the natural, cultural, scenic, and recreational resources of the Presidio for public use in perpetuity, and to achieve long-term financial sustainability. The Trust partners with educators from schools, universities and other organizations on a variety of educational program opportunities offered by a national park in the city. www.nps.gov/goga/forteachers/ www.crissyfield.org www.presidio.gov

PARKS AS CLASSROOMS

Overview Alcatraz Uncovered is an active interdisciplinary social sciences program that introduces middle school students to archeology and allows them to apply their knowledge to a case study of Alcatraz Island. By learning these essential skills and then applying them to a tangible local model, students will learn that archeology and historical analysis can be used to interpret many areas around them. This Educator’s Handbook has been prepared for classroom teachers, National Park Service (NPS), and the Golden Gate National Parks Association (GGNPA) staff who together make up the Alcatraz Uncovered education team.

C U R R I C U LU M O R G A N I Z AT I O N

The program is divided into classroom-based introductory lessons, a field program on Alcatraz Island, and culminating projects in which students illustrate what they learned during the program. The lesson plans include a summary, expected duration, materials list, and facilitation procedure. Handouts and other relevant information that the teacher may use at her/his discretion accompany the lessons. Icon Key: Icons used in the lesson plans and summaries designate where the les-

sons take place and whether the lessons are facilitated by the teacher or NPS staff. Location Icons:

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NPS Staff

AU T H E N T I C A S S E S S M E N T

Each lesson includes several assessment materials. Students will accumulate individual and group work to put into a student notebook. The notebooks will include worksheets, field observations, individual reflections, artwork, journal entries, and their final essay. These notebooks can be used to assess the students’ understanding of important concepts and the evolution of their knowledge and attitudes.

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E D U C AT I O N A L S TA N DA R D S

Alcatraz Uncovered uses archeological methods to uncover different layers of history and the role of historic preservation at a National Historic Landmark. Utilizing the various disciplines that study the past, students will learn how to collect and identify evidence, reconstruct the past from this evidence, and determine how judgements about the past are largely based on points of view. The activities are designed to challenge students to use critical thinking and observational skills to draw conclusions about the meaning and significance of the natural and built environment. In the classroom or in the park, each lesson is based on helping students meet Social Studies Education Standards.

P R O G R A M LO G I S T I C S

So that all students may participate in and enjoy their program days at Golden Gate National Recreation Area, please take careful note of the following: !

Classes must arrive at Pier 31–33 (Alcatraz Cruises) by 9:00 a.m. in order to receive an introduction and be prepared to board the first boat at 9:30 a.m.

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The teacher and at least two other adult chaperones must accompany classes.

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Students will conduct their work in groups of approximately four. These groups should be organized prior to the field session on Alcatraz.

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Clothing appropriate to the nature of the activities and weather conditions at the park is required. Advise students to dress in layers to accommodate the variable temperatures characteristic of the island.

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Arrangements can be made to accommodate most students with special needs. Please discuss specific circumstances with National Park Service staff prior to your visit.

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Alcatraz Uncovered S U M M A RY O F I N S T R U C T I O N A L A C T I V I T I E S

Classroom Preparation What do I already know about Alcatraz Island? - page 1 !

Students discuss and record their impressions and knowledge of Alcatraz.

How can I use archeology to explore my surroundings? - page 20 !

Students are introduced to the application of observation and inference by examining areas of their schoolyard, and identifying and placing artifacts within a specific context.

Why study the early history of Alcatraz? - page 34 !

Students complete a mapping exercise and consider how the geography, location and physical state of the island may have affected the people who used the island’s resources.

How do pictures tell a story about Alcatraz? - page 54 !

Students examine and then draw conclusions from historic photographs and drawings depicting different periods in the island’s history.

How do artifacts tell a story about Alcatraz? - page 131 !

Students compare, contrast and match artifacts representing different people and animals that have interacted with and had an impact on the island during specific time periods.

How am I going to investigate Alcatraz? - page 141 !

A National Park Service representative facilitates an exercise in which students complete a multi-layered drawing of the island that reflects changes over time. Students meet the tools of the trade - key, field journal and map – and prepare for their field session on Alcatraz.

National Park Field Session How am I going to use archeology to experience Alcatraz? - page 1 !

Students apply their knowledge and observational skills in detecting layers of history on Alcatraz Island. They conduct activities at specific stations and complete focus questions in their field journals.

Culminating Projects How can I demonstrate what I have learned? Archeological Jeopardy - page 1 !

Students engage in an interactive game to review concepts studied during the program.

How can I demonstrate what I have learned? Alcatraz Rocks - page 97 !

Students write a short essay from the perspective of an archeologist.

How can I demonstrate what I have learned? Puzzle Pieces - page 98 !

Student groups design a piece of the puzzle to reflect their own interpretation of the significant historical experiences and cultural expressions associated with Alcatraz Island. The complete puzzle (the shape of the island itself ) will be displayed as part of an installation of student work on the island.

Dear Chaperones:

Thank you for assisting with Alcatraz Uncovered. Your participation is an enormous help to the park, teacher, and most importantly, the students. Students are coming to Alcatraz to gain a better understanding of archeology: the study of different peoples over past centuries. On the island, they will learn about Alcatraz as a military fortification and prison (1854-1933), federal penitentiary (1934-1963), site of the Native American Occupation (1969-1971), refuge for wildlife, and National Park System site. Students will use archeology as a tool to detect evidence of the different people who have lived on the island. You will help one group of students explore the island. They have already been oriented to the different layers of history. They have a key, field journal, and map with the specific stations. At each station, they will be asked to observe the area around them using the key. They will respond to certain questions. Please make certain your group does the assignments throughout the program. We look forward to seeing you on Alcatraz.

Sincerely, Benny Batom, Education Coordinator Alcatraz Island

Estimados Acompañantes:

Gracias por ayudarnos con Alcatraz Uncovered (Alcatraz Descubierto). Su participación es una ayuda enorme para el Parque, los maestros y lo más importante, para los estudiantes. Los estudiantes vienen a Alcatraz a adquirir un mejor entendimiento de la arqueología: el estudio de diferentes pueblos de siglos pasados. En la isla aprenderán acerca de Alcatraz como fortificación militar y como prisión (1854-1933), prisión federal (1934-1963), lugar de la Ocupación de los Nativos (Indios) Americanos (19691971), refugio de vida silvestre y localidad del Servicio Nacional de Parques. Los estudiantes usarán la arqueología como una herramienta para hallar evidencia relacionada con las diferentes gentes que han vivido en la isla. Usted ayudará a un grupo de estudiantes a explorar la isla. Ellos ya han sido orientados sobre las diferentes capas de historia. Tienen unas definiciones, un diario para anotar observaciones y un mapa de las estaciones particulares. En cada estación se les pedirá que observen al área que los rodea usando las definiciones. Los estudiantes contestarán ciertas preguntas. Asegúrese de que su grupo realice todas las tareas a través del programa. Esperamos verlos en Alcatraz.

Atentamente, Benny Batom, Education Coordinator Alcatraz island

What do I already know about Alcatraz Island? S U M M A RY

Students share their knowledge and impressions of Alcatraz Island. Students read Archeology and Alcatraz. Students become acquainted with the vocabulary of archeology. Students generate questions that will help motivate their learning during the program. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS ! ! ! !

Archeology and Alcatraz handout Vocabulary list Vocabulary Crossword Puzzle: Digging Words Student notebooks

Lesson Teacher explains to the class that they will visit Alcatraz Island to conduct an archeological investigation. To begin, the class will brainstorm and record what they know about Alcatraz Island. These initial impressions will be compared to their responses in the culminating activities at the conclusion of the entire program. Teacher distributes Archeology and Alcatraz. Students read the handout. Students will need to understand the vocabulary of archeology so they can fully understand the meaning and relationship of the steps involved. Students are introduced to some features of Alcatraz Island. Teacher distributes the vocabulary crossword puzzle. Definitions to the hidden words are provided on the handout. To solve the puzzle, students must consult the vocabulary list and look for the words that match the definitions. The class discusses and clarifies any definitions that they find difficult to understand.

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As a group, the class brainstorms questions they have about archeology and/or Alcatraz. They choose the five most interesting questions from the brainstorming session and record them in their notebooks. This is the first step in a questioning process that will continue throughout the program. The purpose of the questioning is not necessarily to find answers but to allow the questioning to evolve with deeper sophistication and understanding of the issues.

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Archeology and Alcatraz Archeology is the study of human societies through material remains: objects, structures, or historical and oral stories – from the past or the present. When most people think of archeologists, they picture someone working in the middle of nowhere, using a toothbrush to whisk dirt from ancient bones or potsherds. Though this may be the case for some types of archeology, archeological techniques can also be applied to materials that are commonplace and available to everyone. Archeologists use information provided by a variety of subjects, including geography, geology, anthropology, and history, as tools to understand the values, customs, and organizations that create the culture of the group. All archeologists must develop detailed and thorough observational and critical-thinking skills. They aim to understand the difference between objects from the past and the present and how these might fit together. It is very important to remember that though archeologists study material remains, they are also responsible for preserving them and ensuring that future archeologists also can study them. The challenge for an archaeologist is to use material items to understand the daily lives of past and present societies, to provide context. The word "context" means the particular set of circumstances, environment, or facts that surround an object. An understanding of context is very important for the proper analysis of material remains, as an object’s context shows the relationship between the object and its location. For example, a single metal bar does not create a jail cell. However, many bars placed together do create a confined area. One bar has no context and therefore loses significance. Though archeologists use artifacts and their own background knowledge as tools to uncover the past, the types of resources available can vary. This leads to different kinds of archeological studies. Some archeologists examine the distant past, cultures that existed before information was recorded. Other archeologists examine past societies, but they have the luxury of having some historical documentation to use for reference. Both use similar methods: research, A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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surveys, and or a dig. However, depending on the circumstances, studying a culture may not require digging or excavating. In many cases, all of the pieces have already been unearthed, and it is the job of the archaeologist to fit these pieces together. At Alcatraz, you will walk through, or survey, parts of the island. You will use your eyes and your knowledge of Alcatraz history as tools for understanding layers of history. Remember that you are assuming the role of an archeologist with a responsibility to show the layers as accurately and as completely as possible.

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Arqueología y Alcatraz Arqueología es el estudio de las sociedades humanas utilizando residuos materiales: objetos, estructuras o narraciones orales e históricas – del pasado y del presente. Cuando piensa sobre arqueología, la mayoría de la gente se imagina a alguien trabajando en un lugar desconocido usando un cepillo para remover tierra de huesos viejos o vasijas rotas. Aunque este puede ser el caso en algunos tipos de arqueología, las técnicas arqueológicas pueden también ser aplicadas a materiales comunes disponibles a cualquiera. Los arqueólogos usan información obtenidas de una variedad de áreas incluyendo geografía, geología, antropología e historia, como herramientas para entender los valores, costumbres y organizaciones que crearon la cultura de un grupo. Todos los arqueólogos deben desarrollar destrezas de pensamiento crítico para la observación que sean abarcadoras y precisas. Su meta es entender la diferencia entre objetos del pasado y del presente y cómo estos pueden estar relacionados. Es muy importante recordar que aunque estudian los residuos de materiales, los arqueólogos también son responsables de conservarlos y asegurar que arqueólogos futuros puedan estudiarlos también. El reto de un arqueólogo es utilizar los objetos materiales para entender las vidas diarias de sociedades pasadas y presentes, para proveer un contexto. La palabra "contexto" significa un conjunto particular de condiciones, ambiente o datos relacionados con un objeto. Entender el contexto es muy importante para el análisis adecuado de los residuos materiales debido a que el contexto de un objeto muestra la relación entre el objeto y su localización. Por ejemplo, un sola barra de metal no hace una celda de una prisión. No obstante, muchas barras o rejas puestas juntas si crean un área encerrada. Una barra no tiene contexto y por lo tanto pierde importancia. Aunque algunos arqueólogos usan artefactos y la experiencia que han adquirido, como herramientas para descubrir el pasado, los recursos disponibles pueden variar. Esto conduce a diferentes tipos de estudios arqueológicos. Algunos arqueólogos estudian el pasado distante, A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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culturas que existieron antes de que se recogiera información. Otros arqueólogos examinan las sociedades pasadas pero tienen la ventaja de tener alguna información histórica que pueden usar de referencia. Ambos utilizan métodos similares: exploraciones de investigación o excavaciones. Sin embargo, dependiendo de las circunstancias, para estudiar una cultura puede que no sea necesario desenterrar o excavar, en muchos casos todas las piezas ya han sido desenterradas y la labor del arqueólogo es conectar estas piezas. En Alcatraz, usted caminará a través o explorará partes de la isla. Usted usará sus ojos y su conocimiento de la historia de Alcatraz como herramientas para entender las capas de historia. Recuerde que usted está asumiendo el papel de un arqueólogo con la tarea de mostrar las capas de historia de manera tan precisa y completa como le sea posible.

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Digging Words Take out the Vocabulary List. Find the word that matches the definition. Locate the words in the puzzle below. 1 3

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ACROSS 2 A conclusion derived from observations 4 An object made by human work that provides clues about past ways of life 6 An employee of the National Park Service 10 Things found on an archeological dig that give information about past environments, such as seeds, soil and animal bones

11 An old type of large metal gun firing large metal balls 13 The way of life of a particular group 14 A plant several feet across with yellow and green flowers 15 The relationship of an object to its surroundings, and to other artifacts or ecofacts around it

DOWN 1 The building in which the enlisted soldiers lived 3 The movement of indigenous people to further racial equality and gain political power 5 Journal that archeologists keep to record information, such as the context of an artifact or a sketch of an area 7 The scientific study of the life and culture of peoples through artifact and ecofacts

8 Recognizing or noting a fact or occurrence 9 Something a person made but that cannot be moved, such as building structures, fences and walls 11 A small isolated room for confining a prisoner 12 The chief administrator of a prison

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Digging Words (Teacher Key) 1

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I N F E R E E D 9 F P 10 E C O F A W E T R U R 13 R D E N C

O B S E R V 12 W A T I 15 C O N T E X T N

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B 5 A R T I F C E R I 7 A R K R A N G E A L R D C T C 1 K H C A N S E A O E L T L E O L T U R E S O G A V E P L A N Y

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Vocabulary List Agave Plant: A plant several feet across with yellow and green flowers. Some Agaves yield a fiber used for rope. Archeological Resource: Any resource that provides additional information for finding clues about the way people lived in the past. Archeology (also spelled archaeology): The scientific study of the life and culture of peoples through artifact and ecofacts. Artifact: An object made by human work that provides clues about past ways of life. Barracks: The building in which the enlisted soldiers lived. Battery: A thick exterior brick wall built as a platform for guns. Bureau of Prisons: The federal group that administers and controls the prisons. Cannon: An old type of large metal gun firing large metal balls. Caretaker: A person who is responsible for the maintenance and protection of a certain place. Cell: A small isolated room for confining a prisoner. Citadel: A building constructed like a fortress usually overlooking an area. Context: The relationship of an object to its surroundings, and to other artifacts or ecofacts around it. Convict: A person who has been found guilty of a crime and is serving time in a prison.

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Cormorant: A bird found on Alcatraz. Typically are dark brown. Adults have a black patch. The young have brown and white spots over entire body. Culture: The way of life of a particular group. Cypress Tree: A coniferous tree (produces cones) with sharp needles. Declaration: A statement made by a party as a legal transaction. Dig: Excavation of an archeological site; physically unveiling objects, structures, etc. Disciplinary Barracks: A place where soldiers charged with misconduct serve time. Ecofact: Things found on an archeological dig that give information about pastenvironments, such as seeds, soil and animal bones. Feature: Something a person made but that cannot be moved, such as building structures, fences and walls. Field Notes: Journal that archeologists keep to record information, such as the context of an artifact or a sketch of an area. Gun Gallery: A small narrow corridor where guards can watch over prisoners and store weapons. Gun Slit: A long, narrow opening in a wall; used for warfare during the Civil War Era (1860s). Inference: A conclusion derived from observations. Isolation: Living separately from other people. National Park Service: The government organization that preserves and protects national park lands and National Historic Landmarks.

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Native American: A member of the indigenous (original) peoples of the Western Hemisphere; especially a native of North America. Natural Resources: A living, non-human part of the local habitat. Observation: Recognizing or noting a fact or occurrence. Occupation: The seizure and control of a particular place or area. Park Ranger: An employee of the National Park Service. Penitentiary: A federal government prison for people who have been convicted of serious crimes. Red Power: The movement of indigenous people to further racial equality and gain political power. Sandstone: A common sedimentary rock mostly used for building, composed largely of sand grains, mainly quartz, held together by silica, lime, etc. Sandstone is found throughout Alcatraz Island. Steward: A person who is responsible for managing a certain place. Tribe: A social group including numerous families, clans, or generations. Warden: The chief administrator of a prison. Western Gull: A bird found on Alcatraz with a white head and body; a dark gray back; pink legs; and long, yellow beak.

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Lista de Vocabulario Maguey: Una planta de varios pies de ancho con flores verdes y amarillas. Algunos magueyes producen una fibra usada para fabricar soga. Recurso Arqueológico: Cualquier recurso que provea información adicional que permita hallar pistas de cómo la gente vivía en el pasado. Arqueología: El estudio científico de la vida y la cultura de los pueblos a través de artefactos y datos ecológicos ("eco-dato"). Artefacto: Un objeto producido por el trabajo humano el cual provee pistas sobre modos de vida en el pasado. Barracas: El edificio donde vivían los soldados activos. Batería: Una muralla exterior ancha construida para servir de plataforma a armamentos. Negociado de Prisiones: La agencia federal que controla la administración de la prisiones. Cañón: Un tipo antiguo de arma grande de metal, que disparaba grandes bolas de metal. Conserje: Persona responsable del mantenimiento y cuidado de un lugar particular. Celda: Una pequeño cuarto aislado para confinar a un prisionero. Ciudadela: Un edificio construido como un fuerte, generalmente dominando un área particular. Contexto: La relación de un objeto con sus alrededores, con otros artefactos o condiciones ecológicas que lo rodean. Convicto: Una persona declarada culpable de un crimen y que está sirviendo tiempo en una prisión

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Cormorán: Cuervo marino. Un pájaro que puede hallarse en Alcatraz. Generalmente son de color marrón oscuro y los adultos tienen una mancha negra. Los jóvenes tienen manchas marrón y blancas por todo el cuerpo. Cultura: El modo de vida de un grupo particular. Ciprés: Árbol de coníferas (produce fruto en forma de conos) con agujas agudas. Declaración: Una aseveración de carácter legal hecha por una parte. Excavación: El hoyo hecho en un lugar arqueológico que revela físicamente objetos, estructuras, etc. Disciplinaria (barraca): Un lugar donde los soldados acusados de mal comportamiento sirven tiempo. Dato ecológico (eco-dato): Cosas halladas en una excavación arqueológica que revelan información sobre ambientes pasados, tales como semillas, terreno, huesos de animales. Rasgo: Algo creado por un apersona pero que no puede ser removido, como estructuras o edificios, verjas y paredes. Notas de Campo: Diario donde los arqueólogos anotan información tal como el contexto de un artefacto, o diagramas de un área. Galería de armas: Un pasillo pequeño y estrecho donde los guardias pueden observar los prisioneros y almacenar armas. Ranura de armas: Una hendidura larga y estrecha en una pared, usada para disparar en la época de la Guerra Civil Estadounidense (en los años 1860). Inferencia: Una conclusión derivada de observaciones. Aislamiento: Vivir separado de otra gente.

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Servicio Nacional de Parques: Organización gubernamental que conserva y protege los los parques nacionales. Nativo Americano: Un miembro de los pueblos indígenas (originales) del Hemisferio Occidental; especialmente una Indio de Norteamérica. Recursos Naturales: Parte viviente, no humana, del hábitat local. Observación: Reconocer o notar un hecho o evento. Ocupación: La toma y control de un lugar o área particular Guardia De Parque: Un empleado del Servicio Nacional de Parques Penitenciaría: Una prisión del gobierno federal para personas que han sido convictos de crímenes graves. Poder Rojo: Movimiento de los pueblos indígenas para lograr igualdad racial y adquirir poder político. Piedra Arenisca: Una roca sedimentaria común usada mayormente en construcción, compuesta mayormente de granos de arena, principalmente cuarzo, unidos por sílice, cal, etc. Mayordomo: Persona responsable de administrar un lugar particular. Tribu: Un grupo social que incluye varias familias, clanes o generaciones. Alcaide: El jefe ó administrador de una prisión. Gaviota del Oeste: Un pájaro que puede hallarse en Alcatraz con cabeza y cuerpo blanco, un dorso gris oscuro; patas rosadas y un pico amarillo largo.

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How can I use archeology to explore my surroundings? S U M M A RY

Students determine the difference between observation and inference. Students describe and interpret a space. Students explain the meaning and significance of context. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS ! !

Observation versus Inference worksheets Student notebooks

Lesson Teacher reviews the difference between observation and inference. The class forms groups of 3 to 5 students. Students complete the Observation versus Inference worksheet. The class discusses and clarifies any aspect they found difficult to understand. Teacher identifies one particular location in the schoolyard. (This location should include an area with different objects or an area with an interesting use of space.) Student groups are asked to approach the area as though they were seeing it for the first time. Students make a list of ten things they observe and write five inferences they can make from their observations. They then describe how they made those inferences. Back in the classroom, the teacher explains that understanding the context of an artifact is an important part of understanding the story behind it. An isolated artifact can tell a story, but we gain invaluable insights when we know where an artifact comes from and how it relates to its surroundings. Each group records a list of five possible classroom artifacts. (Examples: the blackboard, erasers, pictures, desks, etc.) Students describe how these artifacts tell the story of what happens in the classroom. 20

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Each group then imagines that these items were found in the middle of the schoolyard. Would this tell a different story? Why? If they were archeologists and they found one of the items in a garage or alley, how could the meaning of the artifact change? Students record their opinions in their notebooks.

* Extended Learning Activity Ask students to complete the second Observation versus Inference worksheet. This worksheet provides a list of five statements. They should underline the phrase that leads them to an inference and explain why they would identify it as an inference.

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Observation versus Inference Worksheet #1 Vocabulary Review: Observation: Recognizing or noting a fact. Inference: Conclusion taken from an observation; an interpretation. Instructions: Place an "O" next to the statements that are observations. Place an "I" next to the statements that are inferences. 1.

Alcatraz is an island.

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We can tell from the appearance of the island that it was once used as a prison.

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The number of birds on Alcatraz tells us that they make nests on the island.

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Over a million visitors come to Alcatraz every year.

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People come to Alcatraz only to learn about the lives of the people who lived there.

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The political protest by indigenous people (known as the Native American Occupation) began in 1969.

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We can tell by the behavior of the Western Gulls that they nest on Alcatraz.

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The closed area signs say to stay out of areas that are dangerous to visitors.

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It was difficult for prisoners to escape Alcatraz because it is an island.

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Each cannonball weights over 40 pounds.

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Teacher Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #1 1. (O) Alcatraz is an island. 2. (I) We can tell from the appearance of the island that it was once used as a prison. 3. (I) The number of birds on Alcatraz tells us that they make nests on the island. 4. (O) Over a million visitors come to Alcatraz every year. 5. (I) People come to Alcatraz only to learn about the lives of the people who lived there. 6. (O) The political protest by indigenous people (known as the Native American Occupation) began in 1969. 7. (I) We can tell by the behavior of the western gulls that they nest on Alcatraz. 8. (O) The closed area signs say to stay out of areas that are dangerous to visitors. 9. (I) It was difficult for prisoners to escape Alcatraz because it is an island. 10. (O) Each cannonball weights over 40 pounds.

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Observation versus Inference Worksheet #2 Instructions: For each sentence, underline the part of the phrase that states the observation with a single line, and the part of the sentence that marks the inferences with a double line. 1.

The soldier is holding a gun. Therefore, the soldier must be in battle.

2. I thought that the prisoners were trying to escape because they were picking at their cell wall with metal tools.

3. The National Park Service uniform she was wearing made me think she worked for the National Park Service.

4. The writing on the buildings shows the many layers of history on Alcatraz.

5. Because I saw many birds on the parade ground, I thought the birds must have nests around the island.

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Teacher’s Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #2 1. The soldier is holding a gun. Therefore, the soldier must be in battle. 2. I thought that the prisoners were trying to escape because they were picking at their cell wall with metal tools. 3. The National Park Service uniform she was wearing made me think she worked for the National Park Service. 4. The writing on the buildings shows the many layers of history on Alcatraz. 5. Because I saw many birds on the parade ground, I thought the birds must have nests around the island.

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Observación versus Inferencia Hoja de Trabajo #1 Repaso de Vocabulario: Observación: Reconocer ó notar un hecho Inferencia: Conclusión derivada de una observación; una interpretación Instrucciones: Escriba una "O" al lado de las oraciones que son observaciones. Escriba una "I" al lado de las oraciones que son inferencias. 1.

Alcatraz es una isla.

2.

De la apariencia de la isla podemos concluir que una vez fue usada como una prisión.

3.

El número de pájaros en Alcatraz nos sugiere que éstos anidan en la isla.

4.

Más de un millón de visitantes visitan Alcatraz todos los años.

5.

La gente viene a Alcatraz solamente para aprender sobre las vidas de la gente que vivió ahí.

6.

La protesta política realizada por gente indígena (conocida como la Ocupación de los Nativos Americanos) comenzó en 1969.

7.

Podemos a juzgar por su comportamiento, que las Gaviotas del Oeste anidan en Alcatraz.

8.

Los letreros que indican áreas cerradas dicen a los visitantes que se mantengan fuera de áreas peligrosas.

9.

Para los prisioneros era difícil escaparse de Alcatraz porque es una isla.

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Cada bola de cañón pesa más de 40 libras. A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

Teacher Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #1 1. (O) Alcatraz is an island. 2. (I) We can tell from the appearance of the island that it was once used as a prison. 3. (I) The number of birds on Alcatraz tells us that they make nests on the island. 4. (O) Over a million visitors come to Alcatraz every year. 5. (I) People come to Alcatraz only to learn about the lives of the people who lived there. 6. (O) The political protest by indigenous people (known as the Native American Occupation) began in 1969. 7. (I) We can tell by the behavior of the Western Gulls that they nest on Alcatraz. 8. (O) The closed area signs say to stay out of areas that are dangerous to visitors. 9. (I) It was difficult for prisoners to escape Alcatraz because it is an island. 10. (O) Each cannonball weights over 40 pounds.

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Observación versus Inferencia Hoja de Trabajo #2 Instrucciones: En cada oración, subraye con un línea sencilla la parte de la frase que expresa la observación, y con un línea doble la parte de la oración que indica la inferencia. 1. El soldado está sujetando un arma. Por lo tanto el soldado debe estar en una batalla.

2. Pensé que los prisioneros estaban escapando por que estaban escarbando las paredes de sus celdas con herramientas de metal.

3. El uniforme del Servicio Nacional de Parques que ella estaba usando me hizo pensar que ella trabajaba para el Servicio Nacional de Parques.

4. La escritura en los edificios muestra las muchas capas de historia de Alcatraz.

5. Como vi muchos pájaros en la plaza de desfiles, pensé que los pájaros tendrían nidos en la isla.

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Teacher’s Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #2 1. The soldier is holding a gun. Therefore, the soldier must be in battle. 2. I thought that the prisoners were trying to escape because they were picking at their cell wall with metal tools. 3. The National Park Service uniform she was wearing made me think she worked for the National Park Service. 4. The writing on the buildings shows the many layers of history on Alcatraz. 5. Because I saw many birds on the parade ground, I thought the birds must have nests around the island.

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Teacher Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #1 1. (O) Alcatraz is an island. 2. (I) We can tell from the appearance of the island that it was once used as a prison. 3. (I) The number of birds on Alcatraz tells us that they make nests on the island. 4. (O) Over a million visitors come to Alcatraz every year. 5. (I) People come to Alcatraz only to learn about the lives of the people who lived there. 6. (O) The political protest by indigenous people (known as the Native American Occupation) began in 1969. 7. (I) We can tell by the behavior of the Western Gulls that they nest on Alcatraz. 8. (O) The closed area signs say to stay out of areas that are dangerous to visitors. 9. (I) It was difficult for prisoners to escape Alcatraz because it is an island. 10. (O) Each cannonball weights over 40 pounds.

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Teacher’s Answer Key: Observation versus Inference Worksheet #2 1. The soldier is holding a gun. Therefore, the soldier must be in battle. 2. I thought that the prisoners were trying to escape because they were picking at their cell wall with metal tools. 3. The National Park Service uniform she was wearing made me think she worked for the National Park Service. 4. The writing on the buildings shows the many layers of history on Alcatraz. 5. Because I saw many birds on the parade ground, I thought the birds must have nests around the island.

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Why study the early history of Alcatraz? S U M M A RY

The class is introduced to the early history of San Francisco Bay and Alcatraz Island. Students complete a mapping exercise and consider how the geography, location, and physical state of the island may have affected the people who would have used the island’s resources. TIME

1.5 hours M AT E R I A LS ! ! ! !

Maps of San Francisco shoreline Interpretations of Alcatraz Interpretations of Alcatraz worksheet Student notebooks

Lesson Teacher explains to the class that until about 10,000 years ago, San Francisco Bay used to be just the mouth of the Sacramento River. Following the last ice age, the bay was flooded when the sea level rose 300 feet. The entire bay became an estuary (where fresh and salt water mix) as a result of the meeting of the Sacramento River and the Pacific Ocean. In the recent past, the bay has begun to be filled in by mud from the Sacramento River. Eventually, the bay will become marshlands. Students form pairs and receive a copy of the maps and worksheet. Each group compares the different maps and completes this section of the worksheet. Students share their responses. Following the discussion, students generate and record their own questions. Each group then receives one written interpretation of Alcatraz’s early history. Teacher asks students to consider the following questions: What does this story tell you about the person who created this story? Do you think that this is what happened in early history? 34

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Each group presents its version of the early history of Alcatraz to the class. The class discusses how and why these interpretations might differ. Students complete final section of worksheet.

*Extended Learning Activity Ask students to select one place on the map of the Bay Area. Describe how they think the geography might affect the way a town develops and changes over time. Record in their notebooks.

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Maps of San Francisco shoreline over time Each of these maps shows a 3-D computer rendering of the San Francisco Bay. Black = water White = actual outline of land at that time

15,000 years before present

10,000 years before present

5,000 years before present

125 years before present

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Mapas de La Linea de la Playa de San Francisco a pasar del tiempo Cas a uno de estos mapas Reflejan una imagen de 3 dimensiones de la Bahía de San Francisco. Negro = aqua Blanco = contorno acyual de tierra de aquel tiempo

15,000 años antes del presente

10,000 años antes del presente

5,000 años antes del presente

125 años antes del presente

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Interpretations of Alcatraz Mapping 1. Describe the differences or similarities you see in each of the maps.

2. Why do you think these changes occurred?

3. How do you think the way the land is shaped might affect the lives, culture, and beliefs of the people who lived there?

4. Find and label the following areas on the map: • • • •

San Francisco Berkeley/Oakland Marin Alcatraz Island

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5. How do these maps illustrate a layer of history on Alcatraz Island?

Early History 1. Why study early history?

2. Write your own two questions about the early history of Alcatraz.

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Interpretaciones sobre Alcatraz Mapas 1. Describa las diferencia o similitudes que observa en cada uno de los mapas.

2. ¿Por qué cree usted que ocurrieron estos cambios?

3. ¿Cómo cree usted que la forma del terreno pudo afectar las vidas, la cultura y las creencias de la gente que vivió aquí?

4. Localice y rotule las siguientes área en el mapa: • • • •

San Francisco Berkeley/Oakland Marín Isla de Alcatraz

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5. ¿Cómo ilustran estos mapas una de la capas de historia de la isla de Alcatraz?

Historia primitiva 1. ¿Por qué ha de estudiarse la historia primitiva?

2. Escriba dos preguntas suyas sobre la historia primitiva de Alcatraz.

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Interpretations of Alcatraz Archeology and Prehistory: San Francisco Bay Shellmounds*

Archeological studies suggest that groups of artifacts found along the shores of the Bay Area show evidence of Native American habitation thousands of years ago. The type of artifacts and the placement of these artifacts provide clues about the past people’s way of life. One of the most common groups of artifacts found is a heap of mollusk and oyster shells clumped together with charcoal and ash. In addition, there are some pebbles and cut stones that may have been used for creating cooking areas. These large piles of shells and other materials commonly called "shellmounds," are found throughout the Bay Area. The bottom part of these shell mounds are made up of mostly shells, while the upper layers have other types of artifacts such as ornaments and decorations. However, just because a shellmound cannot be seen in a particular place today does not mean that one was not there thousands of years ago. Countless such shellmounds have most likely been destroyed by the farmers who first worked the land, the people who built cities, and by natural weathering or changing geography and geology. The remains of these shellmounds tell us many things about the lives of people in the Bay Area thousands of years ago. It shows that they used the ocean for the fish, had organized cooking areas, and may have had some sort of organization and leisure time to produce decorations. It is still unclear whether these groups had a home base or moved around (migrated) to keep up with their food supply. The material pieces left behind by people to show how life may have been in the Bay Area thousands of years ago. The shellmounds show that people were using the Bay Area for its natural resources long before the Civil War period (1860s). * The information for this topic is from the article "San Francisco Shellmounds," by N.C. Nelson, and from "The California Indians: A Source Book," by the University of California Press. A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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Interpretaciones sobre Alcatraz Arqueología y Pre-historia: Montículos de Conchas de la Bahía de San Francisco*

Los estudios arqueológicos sugieren que los grupos de artefactos hallados por las riberas del Área de la Bahía, muestran evidencia de la presencia de Nativos Americanos miles de años atrás. El tipo de artefacto y la localización de éstos ofrecen pistas sobre el modo de vida de la gente primitiva. Uno de los grupos de artefactos más comunes hallados es un mogote de moluscos y conchas de ostras pegadas con carbón y cenizas. Además, hay algunas piedrecillas (pebbles) y rocas cortadas que pudieron haber sido áreas usadas para cocinar. Estos grandes montones de conchas y otros materiales comúnmente llamados montículos de conchas (shelmounds), pueden hallarse por todo el Área de la Bahía. La base de estos montones están formados mayormente por conchas, mientras que las capas superiores tienen otros tipos de artefactos como adornos y decoraciones. Sin embargo, el hecho que hoy día no puedan verse montículos de conchas en un lugar particular no quiere decir que no hayan estado ahí miles de años atrás. Es muy probable que un sinnúmero de tales montículos fueron destruidos por los agricultores que primero trabajaron la tierra, por la gente que construyó ciudades y por el clima y la cambiante geografía y geología. Los residuos de estos montículos nos dicen muchas cosas acerca de las vidas de la gente del área de la Bahía hace miles de años. Nos demuestran que esa gente usó el océano para obtener peces, que organizaron áreas para cocinar, y que tuvieron algún tipo de organización y tiempo libre para crear decoraciones. No está claro todavía si estos grupos tenían una base ó un hogar principal o si se movían (migraban) para asegurar el abastecimiento de alimentos. Pedazos de material han sido dejados por la gente para mostrarnos como la vida pudo haber sido en el Área de la Bahía miles de años atrás. Los montículos de conchas demuestran que la gente estaba usando los recursos naturales de la Bahía mucho antes del período de la Guerra Civil (los 1860). * La información de este tópico es del artículo, "San Francisco Shellmounds" (Los Montículos de Conchas de S.F.), por N.C. Nelson, y de "The California Indians: a Source Book," (Los Indios de California), un libro de recursos, por California University Press. 46

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Interpretations of Alcatraz The Story Behind the Scenery*

The first humans to inhabit the San Francisco Bay were the Native American groups now know as the Coastal Miwok and Costanoans. Living in small groups along the shore, these pre-historic inhabitants may have arrived as early as a thousands years ago. It is even possible that they may have lived on the floor of the valley before the sea poured in; their legends tell of how the valley was deluged when a might earthquake admitted the ocean. Subsisting on locally available food resources such as shell, marine mammals, acorns, and game, the Coastal Miwok and Costanoans navigated the bay with tule canoes. They were the first humans to visit Alcatraz, gathering the eggs of the island’s many sea birds as edible delicacies. The absence of any sign of their visits, such as the remains of camps or villages was later interpreted by people familiar with the island’s acquired reputation as evidence that these early people considered it a place of evil spirits. Barren and swept by the harsh winds and cold, damp fog that usually blankets it, Alcatraz was definitely not a comfortable site for habitation. Nearby Angel Island, wooded and with springs and streams, was the site of several villages and provided ready access to Alcatraz’s food resources. * Excerpted from "Alcatraz: Island: The Story Behind the Scenery," by James P. Delgado, 1989.

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Interpretaciones sobre Alcatraz La Historia detrás del Paisaje*

Los primeros humanos que habitaron la Bahía de San Francisco fueron los grupos de Nativos Americanos hoy conocidos como Miwok Costeros y Costanoans. Estos habitantes pre-históricos, que vivían en pequeños grupos por las riberas, pudieron haber llegado hace tanto tiempo como mil años atrás. Hasta es posible que hallan vivido en el suelo del valle antes de que el mar lo inundara; sus leyendas hablan de cómo el valle fue inundado cuando un gran terremoto dejó entrar el océano. Los Miwok Costeros y los Costanoans navegaban por la Bahía en canoas de junco y vivían de los recursos alimenticios locales tales como conchas, mamíferos marinos, bellotas y la caza. Ellos fueron los primeros humanos que visitaron Alcatraz, y recogían huevos de los muchos pájaros marítimos de la isla que consumían como delicados manjares. La ausencia de indicación alguna de sus visitas, como serían los restos de campamentos ó villas, fue más tarde interpretado por gente familiarizada con la reputación que adquirió la isla, como evidencia de que estas gentes consideraban la isla como un lugar de espíritus malignos. Desolada y barrida por los fuertes vientos y la fría y húmeda niebla que generalmente la cubre, Alcatraz evidentemente no era un lugar fácil de habitar. La Isla del Ángel, próxima a Alcatraz, con sus bosques, manantiales y arroyuelos era el lugar donde habían varios poblados y que proveía franco acceso a los recursos alimenticios de Alcatraz. * "Alcatraz: Island: The Story Behind the Scenery," by James P. Delgado, 1989.

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Diamond Island

Interpretation by Pit River People Long ago. In the days when there was more magic than doubt. When there was a belief in the need for greater powers. The ancestors of today's Pit River tribe in Northern California were in great turmoil. It is said that California's Central Valley was once a huge fresh water lake. Perhaps reacting to the turmoil, a great shaking of an angry spirit within the earth caused part of the coastal range to crumble into the ocean. When the huge lake finally drained, the San Francisco Bay appeared, and there, in isolation was an island. The island was called "Alisti Ti-Tanin-Miji," which means rock with a rainbow living inside. Thousands of years before the Spaniards called this island Alcatraz, it was known to some indigenous people of Northern California as "Diamond island." This was a time of great supernatural forces, both good and deceitful. One such great force was Night Flying Butterfly who helped create the universe. Night Flying Butterfly summoned the tribal council and told them of the special diamond or healing rock that would be found on Alist Ti-Tanin-Miji, Diamond island. The healing rock shined and sparkled, but it was not jewelry. It was much more. The diamond was a thought, an essence of peace and well being. Night Flying Butterfly instructed the tribal council to send the two mouse brothers, who were good at burrowing and digging, to find the diamond and retrieve it for the healing of the people. So the mouse brothers were entrusted to search the island for the diamond, a shining truth, a healing treasure for the troubled indigenous people long ago. It is said that the diamond was to bring a goodness to all our people, everywhere. They soon found the healing diamond. They presented the diamond to the tribal council and people. There was then a great healing of the people throughout the land.

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Isla Diamante

Interpretación de la tribu de Pit River Hace mucho, en los tiempos en que había más magia que dudas, cuando se creía en la necesidad de poderes superiores, los antepasados de la actual tribu de Pit River en California del norte estaban en un gran conflicto. Se dice que el Valle Central de California fue una vez un inmenso lago de agua fresca. Tal vez como reacción a la desolación mencionada, una gran convulsión de un espíritu enojado dentro de la tierra causó un derrumbe que hundió parte de la cordillera costera en el océano. Finalmente, cuando el inmenso lago se vació, surgió la Bahía de San Francisco y en ésta, una isla aislada. A esta isla se le llamó Allisti Ti-Tanin-Miji, que quiere decir, roca con un arcoiris que vive dentro. Miles de años antes de que los Españoles la llamaran Alcatraz, esta isla era conocida por algunos pueblos indígenas del norte de California como Isla Diamante. Era aquella una época de grandes fuerzas sobrenaturales, tanto buenas como engañosas. Una de éstas gran fuerzas era la Mariposa Voladora Nocturna, que ayudó a crear el universo. Al notar el conflicto del pueblo de Pit River, la Mariposa Voladora Nocturna convocó a los líderes de la tribu y les contó sobre la roca especial o curativa que habría de ser hallada en Allisti Ti-Tanin-Miji, Isla Diamante. La benefactora roca brillaba y relucía pero no era una joya, era mucho más. El diamante era un pensamiento, esencia de paz y bienestar. La Mariposa Voladora Nocturna instruyó a los líderes de la tribu a que enviaran dos ratones hermanos, que fuera buenos cavando y escarbando, para que encontraran el diamante y lo recogieran para sanar la tribu. Entonces a los hermanos ratones se les encomendó explorar la isla para encontrar el diamante, una reluciente verdad, un tesoro sanador para el desesperado pueblo indígena de tiempo atrás. Cuentan que el diamante habría de traer bienestar a toda nuestra gente, en todas partes. Muy pronto los ratones encontraron el diamante benefactor. Le presentaron el diamante al consejo de líderes y al pueblo. Entonces hubo un gran recuperación de la gente por todo el territorio.

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How do pictures tell a story about Alcatraz? S U M M A RY

Students examine historic photographs and drawings to learn about the people and natural forces in Alcatraz history. They share information through an interactive slide presentation. Students use the skills they have developed to piece together the layers of history on Alcatraz. TIME

1.5 hour M AT E R I A LS ! ! ! !

Laminated images with brief descriptions Images of Alcatraz worksheets Layers of Alcatraz History: slide presentation Student notebooks

Lesson Students divide into fourteen even-numbered groups. Each group receives one laminated image and a corresponding worksheet. Ask students to recall the difference between observation and inference. Students study image and complete worksheet. After finishing the worksheet, students should turn over the image and read the brief description on the back. Ask them to compare their description with the one on the back of the image. Teacher explains that their image will be part of a slide presentation. As the experts for this image, they must be prepared to explain their discoveries to the class. Teacher begins the slide presentation. Students interpret their image, utilizing the focus questions on the worksheet as their guide. They should include what they observed, what they inferred, and the information on the back of the image. Teacher also may inquire who they believe took the photographs and for what purpose? Additional information for the teacher is provided.

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Students are asked to find a picture from their own past. They ask and record their answer to the following question: How does my picture tell a story?

*Extended learning activity Students select two questions from their notebooks. Students read handouts and/or consult the Alcatraz Island web site: www.nps.gov/alcatraz, and utilize information to answer their questions. They cite their source and record their answers in their notebooks.

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Images of Alcatraz Image #1: Alcatraz in the mid-1800s 1. Where do you think this photograph was taken from?

2. Describe the natural surroundings you see in this photograph.

3. How do you think this island might change when a large city begins to develop around it?

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Image #2: Soldiers on Fortress Alcatraz 1. Describe the natural setting of this photograph.

2. Describe the people in this photograph.

3. Are these soldiers in battle? How can you tell?

4. What story might this photograph tell about life on Alcatraz during the Fortress years?

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Image #3: Soldiers drilling on Alcatraz Island 1. Describe the buildings and the people in this photograph.

2. Are all of the people doing the same activities in this photograph? How are their actions similar or different?

3. What does this photograph tell you about life on Alcatraz?

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Image #4: Soldiers and their families 1. Describe what you see in this photograph.

2. These people are on Alcatraz Island during the military years. What are some clues that show they are at a military fort?

3. What does this photograph tell you about daily life on Alcatraz during the Fortress years?

4. Imagine that you lived on Alcatraz as a soldier during the 1860s. How would you spend your leisure time?

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Image #5: Reshaping the island 1. Describe the parts of the photograph that show people changing the landscape of the island.

2. Based on your observations, do you think that everyone in this photograph is doing the work? Why or why not?

3. Based on what you can see, how does this photograph illustrate change on Alcatraz Island?

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Image #6: Convicts in the Recreation Yard 1. Describe the people, the nature, and the buildings that you see in this photograph.

2. What clues in the photograph tell you that these are convicts in a recreation area?

3. Imagine that you are a convict in this photograph. How would you feel if five hours in this recreation area was your only time outdoors all week?

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Image #7: Guard at his station 1. Describe the guard and the area that he is watching.

2. Based on your description, what can you tell us about the lives of the guards and the prisoners on Alcatraz?

3. Some of the guards said that their job was "hours of boredom, followed by seconds of terror." What do you think that means? Why do you think they said that?

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Image #8: Family life at the federal penitentiary 1. Describe the people and their surroundings in this photograph.

2. These children lived on Alcatraz. How does this photograph tell a story about life on the island?

3. Imagine that you were growing up on Alcatraz. How do you think your life would be different than your daily life now?

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Image #9: Native American Occupation 1. Describe the people and the natural surroundings in this photograph.

2. They are presenting something to a group. Based on your description, what do you think they are saying and who is their audience?

3. How does their presentation and their surroundings create a new history of Alcatraz?

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Image #10: Native American Pow Wow 1. Describe the people and their location in this photograph.

2. What can you conclude from your observations about this event?

3. How do you think this photograph helps tell the story of the layer of Alcatraz history associated with indigenous people?

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Image #11: Layering of history 1. Describe what is occurring in this photograph.

2. Identify and describe evidence of at least three different layers of history in this photograph.

3. How do these markings help tell the story of change on Alcatraz Island?

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Image #12: Western Gulls 1. Describe the wildlife and setting in this photograph.

2. Why do you think thousands of birds make their nest on Alcatraz every year?

3. Choose two different layers of history on Alcatraz. Describe how you think the people might have treated the birds in these different time periods.

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Image #13: Hollywood and Alcatraz 1. Describe the images in this photograph.

2. Using your description, what do you conclude from these images?

3. How do you think movies create a layer of history on Alcatraz?

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Image #14: Students and Alcatraz 1. Describe the people and their setting in this photograph.

2. Based on your description, name at least two layers of history you see in this photograph.

3. Do you think studying Alcatraz Island can be important to students and the future of the island? Why or why not?

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Imágenes de Alcatraz Imagen #1: Alcatraz a mediados de los años 1800 1. ¿Dónde cree usted que se tomó esta foto?

2. Describa los alrededores naturales que ve en esta foto.

3. ¿Cómo piensa usted que esta isla ha de cambiar cuando una ciudad grande comience a desarrollarse alrededor de ésta?

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Imagen #2: Soldados en la Fortaleza Alcatraz 1. Describa el ambiente natural en esta fotografía.

2. Describa la gente en esta fotografía.

3. ¿Están batallando estos soldados? ¿Cómo lo sabe usted?

4. ¿Qué historia podría contarle esta foto de la vida en Alcatraz durante los años de La Fortaleza?

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Imagen #3: Soldados haciendo perforaciones en Alcatraz 1. Describa los edificios y la gente en esta fotografía.

2. ¿Está toda la gente envuelta en las mismas actividades en la foto? ¿Cómo son sus acciones similares ó diferentes?

3. ¿Qué le dice esta foto de la vida en Alcatraz?

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Imagen #4: Soldados y sus familias 1. Describa lo que ve en esta fotografía.

2. Esta gente se encuentra en Alcatraz durante los años militares. ¿Cuáles son algunas de las cosas que indican que están en un fuerte militar?

3. ¿Qué le dice esta foto sobre cómo era la vida en Alcatraz durante los años de la Fortaleza?

4. Imagínese que usted era un soldado que vivía en Alcatraz durante los años 1860. ¿En qué emplearía usted su tiempo libre?

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Imagen #5: Transformando la isla 1. Describa las partes de la fotografía que muestran gente cambiando el paisaje de la isla.

2. Basado en sus observaciones, ¿piensa usted que todos en esta foto están realizando trabajo? ¿Por qué si ó por qué no?

3. Basado en lo que puede observar, ¿cómo ilustra esta foto los cambios ocurridos en la isla de Alcatraz?

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Imagen #6: Convictos en el Área de Recreación 1. Describa la gente, la naturaleza y los edificios que ve en la foto.

2. ¿Qué cosas en la foto le indican que hay convictos en el área de recreación?

3. Imagine que usted era uno de los convictos en esta foto. ¿Cómo se sentiría si todo el tiempo que disfrutara al aire libre, en esta área de recreación, fuese solamente cinco horas?

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Imagen #7: Guardia en su puesto 1. Describa el guardia y el área que está vigilando.

2. Basado en su descripción, ¿qué puede decir sobre la vida de los guardias y los prisioneros en Alcatraz?

3. Algunos de los guardias decían que su trabajo era "horas de aburrimiento, seguido de segundos de terror." ¿Qué cree usted que esto significa? ¿Por qué cree usted que ellos decían eso?

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Imagen #8: Vida familiar en la penitenciaría federal 1. Describa la gente y los alrededores en esta foto.

2. Estos niños vivían en Alcatraz. ¿Qué historia sobre la vida en las isla narra esta foto?

3. Imagínese usted creciendo en Alcatraz. ¿De qué maneras cree usted que su vida sería diferente a cómo es su vida diaria hoy?

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Imagen #9: Ocupación por Nativos Americanos 1. Describa la gente y la naturaleza que los rodea en esta foto.

2. La gente está presentándole algo a un grupo. Basado en su descripción, ¿qué piensa usted que la gente está diciendo y quién es su audiencia?

3. ¿Cómo la presentación de la gente y los alrededores crean una nueva historia de Alcatraz?

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Imagen #10: "Pow Wow" (celebración) de los Nativos Americanos 1. Describa la gente y su localización en esta foto.

2. ¿Qué puede usted concluir de sus observaciones de este evento?

3. ¿Cómo cree usted que esta foto ayuda a narrar la historia de la capa de historia de Alcatraz relacionada con los indígenas?

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Imagen #11: Capas de historia 1. Describa lo que ocurre en esta fotografía.

2. Identifique y describa evidencia en esta foto de por lo menos tres capas de historia diferentes.

3. ¿Cómo éstas marcas ayudan a contar la historia de los cambios en la Isla de Alcatraz?

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Imagen #12: Gaviotas del Oeste 1. Describa la vida silvestre y la situación en esta fotografía.

2. ¿Por qué cree usted que miles de pájaros hacen sus nidos en Alcatraz todos los años?

3. Escoja dos capas diferentes de la historia de Alcatraz. Describa cómo piensa usted que la gente trataba los pájaros en estos diferentes períodos de tiempo.

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Imagen #13: Hollywood y Alcatraz 1. Describa las imágenes en esta fotografía.

2. Utilizando su descripción, ¿qué puede usted decir acerca de estas imágenes?

3. ¿Cómo piensa usted que las películas crearon una capa de historia sobre Alcatraz?

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Imagen #14: Estudiantes y Alcatraz 1. Describa la gente y su ambiente en esta foto.

2. Basado en su descripción, nombre al menos dos capas de historia que usted ve en esta fotografía.

3. ¿Cree usted que el estudiar la Isla de Alcatraz puede ser importante para los estudiantes y el futuro de la isla? ¿Por qué sí ó por qué no?

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Image Descriptions for Slide Presentation Following the Teacher Introduction, students present information about each image. The descriptions below mirror those that the students have studied. Additional information for the teacher is in italics, followed by suggested questions. Teacher Introduction

Alcatraz Island has evidence of distinct and overlapping layers of history. The island has been host to many different cultures and natural resources. Each group that has used the island has had to bring over all of the tools they needed. They also often altered the natural resources to fit their needs. However, each group did not entirely destroy what came before them, but instead built their additions on top of the older layers. Many of these images show multiple layers of Alcatraz history and the ways in which the island changed over time. As you see these slides, be a questioning observer. Try to locate the evidence of layering of history and ask yourself why! Image 1: Alcatraz Island [from the San Francisco shore] in mid-1800s

This photograph was taken from the shore of the developing community of San Francisco. The faint outline seen in the middle of the bay shows the earliest-known image of Alcatraz Island. Alcatraz is a 22-acre island located approximately one-anda- quarter miles from San Francisco. In the mid-1800s, the Gold Rush in California brought people from around the world to Northern California. As people began flooding the Bay Area in search of gold, San Francisco grew from a small community into a major city. • Alcatraz was one of three sites for proposed fortifications. Image 2: Soldiers on Fortress Alcatraz

With the growing number of people and wealth in California, the federal government believed it was important to fortify and defend San Francisco Bay. They chose the small island in the bay, which later became known as Fortress Alcatraz, for the first fort. They began building the fort in 1853. They built a lighthouse, then defense walls known as batteries to surround the island. Cannons were placed behind these walls in case of attack. Alcatraz, although armed with cannons and soldiers, was never attacked. • Each cannonball weighed about 440 pounds. • How can we tell if this photograph was taken during a time of battle? 98

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Image 3: Soldiers drilling on Alcatraz

Alcatraz was used as a military fort from 1854 to 1934. The buildings were designed to endure fierce battles. The bottom portion of the building in this photograph was built with thick brick walls to provide sturdiness in case of an attack. The square opening provided a protected place for cannons. The wooden part of the building was built above the sturdy brick bottom for storage. Soldiers trained and prepared for a possible attack. • Soldiers later lived in the wooden structure built above the cannon ports. • Not everyone is part of the drill. What are the other people doing? Image 4: Soldiers and their families

Soldiers were not the only ones to live in this military fortress. The families of soldiers and many other civilian workers also lived on the island. Because these families spent the majority of their time on Alcatraz, they needed places for relaxation as well as work. This garden, modeled after a typical 1800s Victorian flower garden, provides a relaxing area for the residents. However, even in this garden, we can see the influence of the military. Cannonballs surround the garden and line the horizon in the background. • How would you compare these activities to the previous image? Image 5: Reshaping the island

People began to reshape the island in 1853. Originally engineers wanted to change the island’s shape to create an area for the soldiers to practice military exercises. The flat area created became known as the Parade Ground. Creating this flat space and sharp cliff (for protection against boats) took over fifty years. By 1910, the island had a completely different shape than the gently sloping banks seen half-a-century earlier. Many of the people who worked to reshape the island were military prisoners. Military prisoners included those who had deserted their troop or had acted poorly in their service. The prisoners worked daily cutting into the island’s surface and moving material to create this new shape. • Who is and who is not working? What can we infer from this?

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Image 6: Convicts in the Recreation Yard

Here we see a group of convicts in the recreation yard during the federal penitentiary years. The recreation yard provided a place for games, such as shuffleboard or handball. Each convict not in solitary confinement was allowed just five hours each weekend for recreation. The recreation yard also was the first stop for many convicts before they began their daily work assignment. Lines and labels marked on the ground show where the convicts met for each work assignment. The high walls, barbed wire fencing, and numerous guard posts surrounding the yard made escape from this area very difficult. Upon entering the yard, convicts could see the city and realize just what they were missing. • Convicts were allowed five hours on weekends for recreation. • Recreation was considered a privilege, not a right. • Inmates received only four rights: food, clothing, shelter and medical care. • Why was Alcatraz Island chosen as a good site for a maximum-security prison? • What in the image helps us infer that these men are prisoners? • How is this yard similar or different from your recreation area at school? Can we infer anything from this comparison? Image 7: Guard at his station

Alcatraz Island was a maximum-security prison from 1934 to 1963. According to the Bureau of Prisons, only the "worst of the worst," or those who had attempted escape from other prisons, were sent to Alcatraz. One guard for every three prisoners meant that every prisoner was always under a gun. This image shows a guard at the lookout tower on the western side of the island. Each guard worked an 8-hour shift. During this time, the guards had to be constantly aware of any movement around them. Guards often said that their job included "hours of boredom, followed by seconds of terror." • What are the clues we can use to infer that this guard works at a maximumsecurity prison? Image 8: Family life at the federal penitentiary

Convicts and guards were not the only people who lived on Alcatraz during the penitentiary years. Many families lived on the Rock. The children in this photograph took a boat to San Francisco every day to go to school, just like other students might take a bus. People who grew up on the island say that they felt it was a safe place because "they always knew where the criminals were." The sign in this photograph states that Alcatraz was closed to the general public. It warns people passing by the island that helping any prisoner escape or hiding infor100

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mation about a prisoner was against the law. Although families that lived on the island did not interact with the convicts very much, they still had signs reminding them that they lived on prison land. • What can we observe that tells us these children lived near a maximum-security prison? • How do you think that living on Alcatraz may have had an impact on their daily lives? Image 9: Native American Occupation

After the maximum-security prison closed in 1963, the island was left largely uninhabited. In 1969, a group of indigenous people decided to occupy the island. They wanted to use Alcatraz as a symbol of their anger and frustration with the government’s treatment of Native Americans. They issued a proclamation that stated that the island had once belonged to indigenous people and should be returned to them. The time during which the indigenous people lived on the island became known as the Native American Occupation of Alcatraz. Many of the indigenous people wanted to rebuild Alcatraz as a place for Indian education. The proposal in this photograph calls for the construction of a university that would contribute to such efforts. • How is their plan similar and/or different from past uses of Alcatraz? Image 10: Native American Pow Wow

Indigenous people used Alcatraz to celebrate their heritage and culture.This area, once known to convicts as the recreation yard, was used for celebration and public gatherings during the occupation. Taken in 1969, this photograph shows Native Americans in a traditional ceremony. A Pow Wow is a type of ceremony in which indigenous people celebrate the spirit. It is a time to renew thoughts of the old ways and to preserve a rich heritage. Visitors and members of the occupation participated in this ceremony. • The occupation ended in 1971 • What are the clues in this photograph that help tell you this area had once been used as a recreation yard for prisoners? • How is this different than the ways the recreation yard had been used in the past?

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Image 11: Layering of history

In 1979, Alcatraz Island became part of the National Park System. The National Park Service (NPS) assumed responsibility for the protection of the cultural and natural resources on the island. Today, Alcatraz receives over a million visitors every year, making it one of the most highly visited national parks in the nation. The NPS aims to preserve the layers of history on the island. Here we see remains from distinct periods: "Indians Welcome" is evidence of the Native American Occupation, "U.S.M." demonstrates the presence of the United States Marshals after the forced removal of the remaining occupiers in 1971, and, NPS park rangers hanging a sign from the federal penitentiary years. • What can you observe and infer from the writing in this image? • What layers are represented by each piece of writing? Image 12: Western gulls

Birds have lived and used the island for centuries. During the military and penitentiary years, officers shot at the birds to discourage them from using the island as a nesting area. The NPS actively protects the birds and their nests from harm. This photograph shows Western Gulls flying around an old guard tower near the industrial buildings. During the penitentiary years, this same guard tower would have been used as a lookout post. Today, over 1,000 birds make their nests on Alcatraz. Sections of the island are closed to visitors from February to September to provide a safe nesting area for the birds. • What do you think the greatest threats to the birds are today? • What do you think the greatest threats were to the birds in other eras? Image 13: Hollywood and Alcatraz

The general public has been fascinated with Alcatraz Island since the maximumsecurity prison opened in 1934. Over twenty movies and countless other productions have used the island as the main story or backdrop. Most movies focus on the danger and drama of life on the Rock. While some of the movies have been filmed on the island, few show an accurate picture of life on Alcatraz. The stories that Hollywood tells form another important part of the Alcatraz puzzle. • In what ways has Hollywood created its own layer of history on Alcatraz? • How has Hollywood generated interest in Alcatraz?

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Image 14: Students and Alcatraz

The island plays an ongoing role in the education of Bay Area students. Every year school groups visit. Through their observations, perspectives, and retellings of the story, they create a new layer of history. Students in this photograph are participating in a high school program called Unlocking Alcatraz. They are discussing what life may have been like during the prison years. As student archeologists, this class also will help unveil and share the newest layer of history on the island: the future! • What layers of history do you see in this image?

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Alcatraz: The Fortress In 1775, Juan Manuel de Ayala sailed from Spain to San Francisco Bay. He mapped the bay and named its islands. On later Spanish maps, Alcatraz Island was shown as La Isla de Los Alcatraces (the Island of the Pelicans). The island’s large bird population most likely inspired this name. In 1848, gold was discovered in the Sierra Nevada. As people flooded in to northern California from around the world, the city we now know as San Francisco was transformed almost overnight from a small town of 300 to a major trading center of around 20,000. The government began to think that fortresses were needed to guard this new wealth. They decided to build three forts to create a "triangle of defense." Alcatraz’s location in the middle of San Francisco Bay, directly in line with the Golden Gate, made it an ideal place for one of the three forts. Its location also made it a good place for a lighthouse, and the army began building one on the island in the early 1850s. When it was completed in 1854, it was the first operating lighthouse on the Pacific Coast. By the end of the Civil War (1865), Alcatraz also had a citadel (a large, strong defensive building) on its crest and more than 111 cannon mounted on the brick walls around its margin. Over time, the army changed the island’s features. Under the direction of army engineers, workers – most of them prisoners – transformed the island’s shape from its original rounded form to a sharp slope that made it difficult for an enemy to land on or attack. The south end of the island was cut away to make a flat area for the Parade Ground, a place for soldiers to drill. The army brought soil and plants to the island to prevent erosion around the newly constructed buildings and walls and before long, beautiful exotic plants and trees began to grow on the once-barren island. After the Civil War, rapidly changing military technology made Alcatraz almost useless for military defense. Instead, it was given a new role as a disciplinary barracks for soldiers who had committed 104

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crimes. Alcatraz had housed military prisoners almost from the beginning of its existence. In 1859, eleven soldiers were held prisoner in the basement of one of the buildings. Between the 1880s and 1933, the prisoners were generally soldiers convicted of theft, desertion, or sympathizing with the enemy in the Civil War (Southerners). There were also indigenous people held as prisoners from the Indian Wars on the Western frontiers, and prisoners of war from the Spanish-American War of 1898, and later World War I conscientious objectors. By 1915, the island officially became a Disciplinary Barracks. However, by the early 1930s, during the Great Depression, the cost of managing this barracks became too great, and control of Alcatraz was transferred from the military to the Department of Justice and its Federal Bureau of Prisons.

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Alcatraz: The Federal Penitentiary During the early twentieth century, several things combined to create a context for a rise in crime. The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol within the United States and banned the import or export of these beverages as well. The Volstead Act of 1919 provided the means to investigate and punish those who violated this amendment. This, coupled with the Great Depression of the 1930s, resulted in a serious crime wave. Making, importing, and selling liquor; robbing banks; and growing numbers of criminal gangs: these were just a few types of activities the law enforcement agencies combated. The government decided that a "super prison" was needed for the "worst of the worst" criminals, and that Alcatraz, an island in San Francisco Bay, was an ideal place for such a prison. Though isolated from the rest of society, it could be seen from almost everywhere in the surrounding landscape. The government felt that it would be an effective and visible symbol of its seriousness about cracking down on crime. In 1934, Alcatraz officially became a maximum-security federal penitentiary, famous for having high profile, dangerous criminals such as Al "Scarface" Capone; Doc Barker; Alvin "Creepy" Karpis; George "Machine Gun" Kelley; and Robert Stroud, the "Bird Man of Alcatraz." The prison had a reputation as being a tough place to do time. The only rights the prisoners had were clothing, food, shelter, and medical care. Everything else was considered a privilege. Prisoners were not the only ones who lived on the island. Guards and their families also lived just a few minutes’ walk from the inmates’ cells. The children attended school in San Francisco, and held social dances at the officers’ clubhouse on the island. Alcatraz’s location in a large body of water made it a very difficult place from which to escape. However, thirty-four men tried to 106

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escape on fourteen different occasions. The most well known escape occurred in 1962 when three men slipped out in the middle of the night after placing life-like dummy heads in their beds to fool the guards. After climbing down from the top of the cell house and then reaching the island’s edge, they are thought to have used plastic flotation devices to carry themselves away from the island. Their bodies were never found and the Bureau of Prisons presumes that they drowned. Though Alcatraz was an important symbol, it was not heavily used. In the twenty-nine years that it operated as a federal penitentiary, only 1,575 men served time on the island. Eventually, the cost of operating the prison became too high; everything used on the island, including fresh water, had to be brought by barge, and the buildings were crumbling and in need of expensive repairs. In 1963, the Department of Justice ordered the last prisoners transferred and the prison closed.

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Alcatraz: The Native American Occupation After the federal penitentiary closed, Alcatraz was managed as excess government property. Many proposals for the future of Alcatraz were considered. Some of the suggestions included transforming the island into a theme park, a world peace center, or a gambling casino. However, for several years the island remained unused. Native Americans occupied the island at two points. The first occupation was in 1964 and lasted only 4 hours. In 1969, a group of indigenous peoples led by activist Richard Oakes claimed that Alcatraz should be returned to the Native Americans. The island that had served as a prison for over a decade now became a symbol of freedom. This occupation lasted 19 months. The Native Americans offered to buy the island from the federal government for $24 in beads and colored cloth. This offer symbolized the United States’ purchase of Manhattan Island from East Coast indigenous peoples in 1626. Alcatraz’s barren, rocky soil and lack of resources were similar to reservation lands givens to the Native Americans by the government in the 1800s. During the occupation, a call went out for Indians of All Tribes to come to the island. People lived in the apartment buildings once occupied by the guards and their families, and the cells once used by criminals. Phrases such as "Freedom," "Red Power," and "Indian Land" were painted on many of the buildings. The Bay Area was very aware of struggles for civil rights in the 1960s and 1970s. This provided additional public support for the Native American occupation. However, as time passed, public support began to decrease. In 1970, fires destroyed some of these historic buildings on the island. In addition, the difficulty of making a living and transporting food and water to the island caused many occupiers to leave.

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In 1971, federal agents removed the few remaining occupiers and the occupation was officially over. However, the fight for civil rights remained an important issue. After the occupation, the federal government destroyed the old apartment buildings that had housed the occupiers; rubble piles from these structures can still be seen today. When Golden Gate National Recreation Area was established in 1972, Alcatraz became part of this new National Park System area.

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Alcatraz: Natural Resources Alcatraz today is host to many types of birds, and is brightened by rich plant life. However, it has not always been this way. Not long after the Spanish arrived, they began to map and name the islands in the bay. They gave this one the name Alcatraces, thought to mean "The Island of the Pelicans" because of the large number of birds swarming around the small, rounded, sandstone rock. The island offered a place for birds to make their nests without the danger of mainland predators. As Alcatraz’s function changed over time, so did its bird and plant life. The soldiers and guards saw the birds as annoyances, and often fired at them to scare them away. The number and types of plants, however, continued to increase, often with the help of those who lived on the island. As people began to settle on the island, they created more flat spaces for homes and brought plants from the mainland. During the fortress years, Victorian gardens decorated the southern side of the island, and during the penitentiary years, inmates took care of gardens located outside the recreation area. Today, under the care of the National Park Service, birds are welcome to use Alcatraz once again, and are protected while they are here. Every year, thousands of birds- including Black-crowned Night Herons, Brandt’s Cormorants, and Western Gulls- make nests using sticks and grasses and raise their chicks on the island; they also feed on the bay’s rich aquatic life. The southern end of the island (Parade Ground) is closed to visitors during the nesting season. A variety of plants still live on this tiny island. In the spring, it is bright with colorful flowers and fruit. Year-round, larger plants such as Monterey Cypress and Agaves (also called the Century Plant) give the island a distinctive profile. Protecting the natural resources on the island is one of the primary responsibilities of the National Park Service.

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Alcatraz: Hollywood Version Alcatraz has been in the public eye for decades; this small island has attracted the attention of media worldwide. The twenty-nine Hollywood movies and countless television and radio programs made about the island have formed many people’s ideas about Alcatraz. Most of these movies paint Alcatraz as an isolated place where torture and unusual cruelty were common. The criminals are portrayed as either vicious or as victims of a cruel system. Some of these movies are inspired by fact-Alcatraz is an island, and some of the country’s most dangerous criminals were confined there. However, it is important to recognize that Hollywood used these facts as a springboard for more dramatic fictional plots. As an example, in "The Bird Man of Alcatraz" (made in 1962), Burt Lancaster portrays Alcatraz convict Robert Stroud as a gentle man with a fondness for birds. In fact, Robert Stroud did not keep birds on Alcatraz, and was, in the opinion of psychiatrists and many inmates, a dangerous sociopath. More recently, the movie "The Rock" was filmed on Alcatraz, but the entire plot was fictional and much of what appears in the movie does not actually exist on Alcatraz. Alcatraz also turns up as part of movie plots, and in isolated scenes in a variety of movies, such as the Clint Eastwood film entitled "the Enforcer" (1976). Alcatraz has even contributed to movie sound effects: "Terminator 2" and "The Empire Strikes Back" use the sound of the cell house doors slamming. On the small screen, television shows such as "America’s Most Wanted" run stories about prisoners’ experiences on the island. With one exception, before the National Park Service assumed responsibility for the island in 1972, no movies were filmed there; instead sets were constructed to resemble the island, or other prisons were stand-ins for the cell house. In order to film on Alcatraz Island, moviemakers must apply for and receive a permit from the NPS’s Special Park Uses Group, and a donation is usually required. This money is used to help restore hisA l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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torical buildings and give visitors more access to the park. On Alcatraz, money donated by feature films has paid for the restoration of the dock guard tower and beds in the cell house. In addition, replicas of the heads constructed for the 1962 escape attempt were left by a movie crew and are now part of an exhibit. These stories about Alcatraz add a new layer of history to the island: the Hollywood layer. Though the stories may not be true, they have fed the public’s fascination and interest with America’s prison island over many years. However, it is important to separate Hollywood’s Alcatraz "history" from the island’s actual history. The movie creates new stories about the past; they do not uncover layers of the island.

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Alcatraz: La Fortaleza En 1775, Juan Manuel de Ayala partió de España hacia la Bahía de San Francisco. El trazó un mapa de la bahía y le puso nombre a sus islas. En mapas Españoles posteriores la Isla de Alcatraz aparecía como la Isla de los Alcatraces (pelícanos). La numerosa población de pájaros de la isla probablemente inspiró este nombre. En 1848, se descubrió oro en la Sierra Nevada. A medida que la gente llegaba en grandes números de todas partes del mundo hasta el norte de California, la ciudad que hoy conocemos como San Francisco se transformó de un día para otro, de un pequeño pueblo de 300 habitantes a un principal centro de mercadeo de más de 20,000. El gobierno empezó a considerar qué tipo de fuertes se necesitaban para proteger esta nueva riqueza. Decidieron construir tres fuertes para crear un "triángulo de defensa." La localización de Alcatraz, en medio de la Bahía de San Francisco, directamente en línea con la entrada a la bahía (Golden Gate), hizo de la isla la localización ideal para uno de los tres fuertes. Su localización también la hizo un buen lugar para un faro, y el ejército comenzó a construir uno en la isla a principios de la década de 1850. Cuando terminó de construirse en 1854, fue el primer faro en operación en la costa del Pacífico. Para fines de la Guerra Civil (1865), Alcatraz tenía también una ciudadela (un gran edificio para la defensa) en su parte más alta y más de 111 cañones montados sobre la muralla de ladrillos que la rodeaba. Según pasó el tiempo el ejército alteró el aspecto de la isla. Bajo la dirección de ingenieros del ejército, los trabajadores – mayormente prisioneros – transformaron la forma de la isla de su forma redonda original a una colina inclinada que le hacía difícil al enemigo atracar o atacar. El extremo sur de la isla fue cavado para construir un área para marchas o desfiles, un lugar donde los soldados hicieran sus entrenamientos. El ejército trajo terreno y plantas a la isla para prevenir la erosión alrededor de los edificios y paredes recién construidos, y antes de que pasar mucho tiempo bellas y exóticas plantas y árboles comenzaron a crecer en lo que antes fue una isla desolada. A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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Después de la Guerra Civil, la tecnología militar cambió rápidamente y Alcatraz no tuvo ya casi ningún uso como defensa militar; entonces se le asignó una nueva función como barraca disciplinaria para soldados que cometían crímenes. Alcatraz ha alojado prisioneros militares casi desde comienzos de su existencia. En 1859, once soldados fueron recluidos como prisioneros en el sótano de uno de los edificios. Entre los 1880 y el 1993 los prisioneros generalmente eran soldados convictos por robo, deserción o por simpatizar con el enemigo (los sureños) durante la Guerra Civil. También hubo indios prisioneros de las Guerras contra los Indios en la frontera del Oeste, prisioneros de guerra de la Guerra Hispanoamericana de 1898, y más tarde objetores por conciencia de la 1ra Guerra Mundial. Para 1915 la isla se convirtió oficialmente en Barraca Disciplinaria. Sin embargo, para principio de los 1930, durante la Gran Depresión, el costo de mantener estas barracas era muy grande y el control de Alcatraz fue transferido de los militares al Departamento de Justicia y su Negociado Federal de Prisiones.

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Alcatraz: La Penitenciaría Federal Durante la primera parte del Siglo 20 se combinaron varios factores para crear un ambiente donde el crimen creció. La Enmienda 18 a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos prohibió la manufactura, venta o transportación de alcohol en los Estados Unidos y además prohibió la importación y exportación de estas bebidas. El Acta Volstead de 1919 proveyó los mecanismos para investigar y castigar los que violaran dicha enmienda. Esto, combinado don la Gran Depresión de los 1930 ocasionó una seria ola criminal. La manufactura, venta de licor, asaltos a bancos y un número creciente de pandillas de criminales; estas fueron sólo algunas de las clases de actividades que combatían las agencias del orden. El gobierno decidió que se necesitaba una "súper prisión" para los criminales "de la peor calaña," y que Alcatraz, una isla en la Bahía de San Francisco, era el lugar ideal para tal prisión. Aunque estaba aislada del resto de la sociedad, era visible de casi cualquier lugar del panorama que la rodeaba. El gobierno pensó que sería un símbolo visible y efectivo de sus serios propósitos de acabar con el crimen. En 1934, Alcatraz se convirtió oficialmente en una Prisión Federal de Seguridad Máxima, famosa por tener peligrosos criminales de gran notoriedad, como Al "Cara Cortada" Capone, Doc Baker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis; George "Ametralladora" Kelly, y Robert Stroud, El "Hombre Pájaro de Alcatraz." La prisión tenía una reputación de ser un lugar duro para hacer tiempo. Los únicos derechos los prisioneros tenían eran ropa, alimento, vivienda y cuidado médico. Todo lo demás era considerado un privilegio. Los prisioneros no eran los únicos que vivían en la isla, Los guardias y sus familias también vivían a unos pocos minutos de camino de las celdas de los presos. Los niños asistían a la escuela en San Francisco y tenían actividades sociales en la casa club de los oficiales en la isla.

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La localización de Alcatraz, en una gran cuerpo de agua, la hacia un lugar muy difícil de donde escapar. Sin embargo, 34 hombres trataron de escapar en 14 ocasiones diferentes. El escape más conocido ocurrió en 1962 cuando tres hombres se escurrieron en medio de la noche después de haber colocado cabezas simuladas en sus camas para engañar a los guardias. Después de descender desde el techo de la prisión y alcanzar la orilla de la isla, se piensa que usaron artefactos de flotación para alejarse de la isla. Sus cuerpos nunca fueron hallados y el Negociado de Prisiones presume que se ahogaron. Aunque Alcatraz era un símbolo importante, no se usaba mucho. En los veinte años que operó como Prisión Federal solamente 1,575 sirvieron tiempo en la isla. Eventualmente, los costos de operación resultaron muy elevados; todo lo que se usaba en la isla, incluyendo agua potable, debía ser transportado en barcazas y los edificios se deterioraban y requerían costosas reparaciones. En 1963, el Departamento de Justicia ordenó el traslado de los últimos prisioneros y la prisión cerró.

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Alcatraz: La Ocupación de los Nativos Americanos Después que cerró la Penitenciaría Federal, Alcatraz fue administrado como propiedad excedente del gobierno. Muchas propuestas para el futuro de Alcatraz fueron consideradas. Algunas de las sugerencias incluyeron transformar la isla en parque de diversiones, en centro mundial para la paz o una casino. No obstante, la isla no se usó por varios años. Los Nativos Americanos ocuparon la isla en dos ocasiones. La primera ocupación fue en 1964 y sólo duró 4 horas. En 1969, un grupo de indígenas dirigidos por el activistas Richard Oakes demandaba que Alcatraz fuese devuelta a los Nativos Americanos. La isla que había servido como prisión por más de una década se convertía ahora en un símbolo de libertad. Esta ocupación duró 19 meses. Los Nativos Americanos ofrecieron comprar la isla del gobierno federal por $24 en cuentas y tejidos de colores. Esta oferta simbolizaba la compra a los Indios de la isla de Manhattan en la costa este en 1626. Alcatraz, con su suelo rocoso y falto de recursos era parecido a las tierras de las reservaciones dadas a los Nativos Americanos por el gobierno en los años 1880. Durante la ocupación, se hizo un llamado a los Indios de Todas las Tribus para que vinieran a la isla. La gente se alojó en las celdas donde una vez hubo criminales y en los edificios de apartamentos que una vez ocuparon los guardias y sus familias. Frases tales como "Libertad," "Poder Rojo" y "Territorio Indio" fueron pintadas en muchos de los edificios. La gente del Área de la Bahía tenía muy presente las luchas por los derechos civiles de los años 1960 y 1970. Esto proveyó apoyo ciudadano adicional a la ocupación de los Nativos Americanos. Sin embargo, según pasó el tiempo el apoyo del público decayó. En 1970, A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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incendios destruyeron algunos de los edificios históricos de la isla. Además, lo difícil que era ganarse la vida y transportar alimentos y agua a la isla hizo que muchos ocupantes se marcharan. En 1971, los agentes federales removieron a los pocos ocupantes que aún permanecían y la ocupación terminó oficialmente. Sin embargo, la lucha por los derechos civiles continuó siendo un asunto de importancia. Después de la ocupación el gobierno destruyó los viejos edificios de apartamentos que albergaron a los ocupantes; hoy día todavía pueden verse pilas de desecho de esas estructuras. Cuando se estableció el Área Nacional Recreativa de Golden Gate en 1972, Alcatraz se convirtió en parte de esta nueva área del Sistema Nacional de Parques.

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Alcatraz: Recursos Naturales Hoy día Alcatraz todavía es la anfitriona de muchos tipos de pájaros y está adornada con rica variedad de plantas. Sin embargo, esto no fue así siempre. Poco después de su llegada, los Españoles comenzaron a trazar mapas de las islas de la bahía y a nombrarlas. A ésta isla le dieron el nombre de Alcatraces, esto es "La Isla de los Pelícanos" por la multitud de pájaros que sobrevolaban la pequeña y redonda roca arenisca. La isla ofrecía un lugar donde los pájaros hacían sus nidos lejos del peligro de los depredadores de tierra firme. Según cambió la función de Alcatraz a través de los años, así cambiaron sus pájaros y su flora. Los soldados y los guardias veían los pájaros como una molestia y a menudo les disparaban para ahuyentarlos. La cantidad y variedad de plantas, no obstante, continuó creciendo, muchas veces con la ayuda de los que habitaban la isla. A medida que la gente comenzó a establecerse en la isla, crearon más espacios planos para hogares y trajeron plantas de tierra firme. Durante los años de la Fortaleza, jardines Victorianos decoraron el lado sur de la isla y durante los años de la penitenciaría, los presos es encargaron de los jardines que estaban fuera del área de recreación. Hoy día, al cuidado del Servicio Nacional de Parques, los pájaros son bienvenidos a Alcatraz nuevamente y protegidos mientras permanezcan aquí. Todos los años miles de pájaros –incluyendo Garzas, Cuervos Marinos y Gaviotas – fabrican sus nidos usando palos y hierbas, y crían sus polluelos en la isla; también se alimentan de la abundante vida acuática de la Bahía. El extremo sur de la isla (área para marchas) está cerrado al público durante los meses que anidan los pájaros. Una variedad de plantas crece todavía en esta diminuta isla. La Primavera es radiante con coloridas flores y frutas. Todo el año, plantas grandes como el Ciprés de Monterrey y el Maguey (llamada también Planta del Siglo) le dan a la isla un aspecto especial. La protección de los recursos naturales de la isla es una de las principales responsabilidades del Servicio Nacional de Parques.

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Alcatraz: Versión de Hollywood Alcatraz ha estado en la mirilla pública por décadas; esta pequeña isla ha llamado la atención de los medios de comunicación del mundo entero. Las 29 películas de Hollywood y el sinnúmero de programas de radio y televisión hechos acerca de la isla, han formado las ideas que mucha gente tiene sobre Alcatraz. Muchas de esta películas pintan a Alcatraz como un lugar aislado donde la tortura y la crueldad inusual son comunes. Los criminales con presentados como viciosos ó como víctimas de un sistema cruel. Algunas de estas películas fueron inspiradas por la realidad – Alcatraz es una isla y algunos de los criminales más peligrosos del país estuvieron confinados aquí. No obstante, es importante reconocer que Hollywood utilizó estas realidades como base para libretos ficticios más dramáticos. Por ejemplo, en el "Hombre Pájaro de Alcatraz"(hecha en 1962), Burt Lancaster hace el papel del prisionero Robert Stroud, como un hombre bondadoso con los pájaros. De hecho, Robert Stroud no tenía pájaros en Alcatraz y era, según la opinión de muchos psiquiatras y de muchos presos, un peligroso sociópata. Más recientemente, la película "La Roca" fue filmada en Alcatraz, pero la trama entera era ficticia y mucho de los que aparece en la película no existe en Alcatraz. Alcatraz aparece también como parte de la trama y en escenas aisladas en varias películas, como en la película de Clint Eastwood titulada "The Enforcer" (1976). Alcatraz hasta ha contribuido en los efectos de sonido de algunas películas: "Terminator 2" y "The Empire Strikes Back" usan sonidos de las puertas de las celdas cerrando de golpe. En la pantalla pequeña, espectáculos de televisión como "America’s Most Wanted" muestran historias de las experiencias de los prisioneros en la isla. Antes de que el Servicio Nacional de Parques asumiera responsabilidad sobre la isla en 1972, no se filmaron películas aquí, excepto en una ocasión; en su lugar se construyeron escenarios para simular la isla y se usaron otras prisiones para sustituir escenas de Alcatraz. 120

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Para poder en filmar en la Isla de Alcatraz, los productores de películas tienen que solicitar y obtener permiso del Grupos de Usos Especiales del Servicio Nacional y por lo general se requiere una donación. Ese dinero es usado para ayudar a restaurar los edificios históricos y brindarle a los visitantes mayor acceso al parque. En Alcatraz, el dinero donado por los productores de películas ha financiado la restauración de la torre de observación del muelle y de literas en las celdas. Además, personal de cine dejó las réplicas de las cabezas fabricadas para la producción del intento de escape de 1962, y ahora forman parte de una exhibición. Estas historias acerca de Alcatraz le añaden una nueva capa de historia a la isla: la capa de Hollywood. Aunque las historia no sean verídicas, por años han alimentado la fascinación e interés por la isla-prisión estadounidense. No obstante, es importante separar la "historia" de Hollywood de la verdadera historia de Alcatraz. Las películas crean nuevas historias sobre el pasado: no descubren las capas de historia de la isla.

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How do artifacts tell a story about Alcatraz? S U M M A RY

Students use artifacts to analyze layers of history. By completing the activities, students begin to understand the ways in which archeologists utilize field-based information to understand cultures and recreate a model of daily life. Students generate questions for their notebooks. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS ! ! !

Windows into the Past Artifact Kit Windows into the Past worksheets Student notebooks

Lesson Teacher prepares five different stations labeled A through E. Lay out the three artifacts from one bag on each table. The class forms groups of 3 to 4 students. Each group visits each of the stations and completes the first worksheet, recording their observations and inferences about each object. After everyone has visited all of the stations, each group selects a focus station and prepares a short presentation about the meaning of the artifacts. The presentation should concentrate on how these artifacts illustrate life on Alcatraz during that time period. Students complete the second worksheet: • Which artifact is most interesting to me? • What is an artifact from my life that tells a story? Students write at least two of their own questions in their notebooks.

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*Extended learning activities Students choose two artifacts and describe how changing its context might affect the meaning of the artifact. Students create an illustrated dictionary using the artifacts studied during the lesson. An illustrated dictionary is a definition of a word accompanied by a sketch.

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Windows into the Past Worksheet 1: Artifacts Table and Description Artifiact

Probable Use

Historical Layer

Question it Raises

A. 1 A. 2 A. 3 B. 1 B. 2 B. 3 C. 1 C. 2 C. 3 D. 1 D. 2 D. 3 E. 1 E. 2 E. 3

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Ventanas hacía lel Pasado 1: Artifactos

Tabla de Descripción Artifiactos

Uso Probable

A. 1 A. 2 A. 3 B. 1 B. 2 B. 3 C. 1 C. 2 C. 3 D. 1 D. 2 D. 3 E. 1 E. 2 E. 3

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Capa Historical

Preguntas que surgen

Windows into the Past Worksheet 2: Artifacts

1. Which artifact is most interesting to me?

2. What is an artifact from my life that tells a story?

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Ventanas hacía lel Pasado 2: Artifactos

1. Cual artifacto me parece de lo más interesante a mi?

2. Que es un artifacto de mi vida que cuenta una historia?

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Windows Into the Past Artifact Kit The following artifacts are included in your kit. All are representative of items that may have been found on the island during the identified time period. Please remind students that artifacts reveal valuable information and are often fragile. They should therefore be treated with respect. Civil War Era

• Civil War bullets Show evidence of military fort or military presence. • Traditional Civil War hat Helps identify a general time period. • Game from the era Shows that soldiers had leisure time on the island. Penitentiary Era • Reproduction keys

Keys represent the guards’ control over prisoners on the island. • Handcuffs Show that people were imprisoned. • Child’s toy Indicates that children and families also lived on the island. Native American Occupation • Paintbrush

Indigenous people marked buildings with painted symbols of Indian power. • A newsletter The newsletter shows the written voice of Native American occupiers. • Headband/decorated feather An ornament worn by many indigenous people on Alcatraz and other places. National Park Service • National Park Service badge

Marks a representative of the National Park Service; ranger or volunteer. • Brochure: Welcome to Alcatraz Shows that visitors come to Alcatraz to learn about its history. • A mask from Unlocking Alcatraz Interpretations of students also are a part of Alcatraz history.

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Natural Resources • Bird bones or eggs

Shows that birds nest and live on the island. • Bird tags National Park Service involvement in monitoring bird life. • Plants from different areas of the island Indicates the rich vegetation found on the island.

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How am I going to investigate Alcatraz? S U M M A RY

A National Park Service (NPS) representative facilitates an exercise in which students complete a multi-layered drawing of the island that reflects changes over time. Students meet the tools of the trade - key, field journal and map – and, prepare for their field session on Alcatraz. Students learn the role and responsibilities of the National Park Service in the protection of Alcatraz Island, a National Historic Landmark. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS

Teacher provides: ! Student notebooks ! Key, field journal, and map NPS representative provides: ! Tracing paper and writing tools

Lesson Students form the same small groups. Two groups choose one era of the island’s history. (Example: 2 groups of 3 to 4 students each will choose the penitentiary period.) Each group receives a piece of tracing paper with an outline of Alcatraz Island. Students list ten things they will place on their map. (These may include activities, objects, people, buildings or ideas.) After they complete the list, they begin to draw their layer of history. Once each group has completed the drawing, the NPS representative will collect them and divide them into two sets of five layers. Each layer will be placed on top of the other in the order of the history it represents. The NPS representative will facilitate a discussion. Questions will include: How did the students select what to include in their map? A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C l a s s ro o m P re p a ra t i o n

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Which similar and what differing events did the two groups with the same time period choose? Why? What can students speculate about changes over time on Alcatraz Island? The NPS representative then will facilitate a discussion about the field visit to Alcatraz. Teacher distrubutes a copy of the key to Alcatraz, field journal and map to each group. By identifying and labeling the key, students will learn how material remains reveal information about the people and cultures that created them. Students share some of their questions from their notebooks with the NPS representative.

*Extended learning activities Students record their responses to the following questions in their notebooks: What is a layer of history on Alcatraz? What is my role on Alcatraz?

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How am I going to use archeology to experience Alcatraz? S U M M A RY

Students conduct specific activities at stations and complete focus questions in their field journals. They use a map to detect artifacts and ecofacts from the past. Students apply their knowledge and observational skills in detecting layers of history on Alcatraz Island. TIME

2.5 hours on the island M AT E R I A LS ! !

Field journal Map of designated stations

Program An NPS Representative will welcome the students, reviews the rules and cover logistics of their visit. Students will then form smaller groups; each group will be provided (by their instructor) some field notes and a map of the island (with 5 designated stations). As students travel around the island they will be asked to make observations and inferences at each of the 5 stations. At any time, students are free to make sketches or write their own questions (within the page margins or on the last page of the field notes). All groups start at Station 1: the Dock Area. We strongly suggest that after completing Station 1, the groups rotate through each of the 5 stations. The stations in the field journal are suggested stations. Please direct your students to complete as many of the stations as you think time permits or are appropriate for your class. The final twenty minutes of the program will be a facilitated discussion with the NPS Representative, all groups will then return to Station 1: the Dock for this session.

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Students will be asked to describe the visual evidence from each station and make observations, inferences and will be asked critical thinking questions. For example at Station 4: Eagle Plaza they are asked to compare and contrast the differences between the statue of the eagle above the front entrance and a photo found in their field notes. Questions such as: Who do they think changed it? When do you think this happened? Why do you think it was changed? There will be a wrap up session of the field activity at the dock with the NPS Representative. Students will then be asked to reflect upon their experiences on the island.

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3

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Map of designated stations

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Alcatraz Uncovered: Field Notes Date: ___________ Name: _______________ Welcome archeologists! As you travel around the island, you will be making observations at five stations. At any time, feel free to make sketches, notes, and questions in any page margins and in the space left for you on the last page of these field notes.

Station 1: At the Dock Alcatraz Layer of History Natural History

Observations Sea gulls,

National Park Service

American Indian Occupation

Federal Penitentiary

Guard tower,

Fortress Alcatraz

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Station 2: Sally Port Find the huge, rusty door hinges. Then start listing your own observations. See if you can observe features that others in your group have not. Observation Example: Large, rusty door hinges

Inference(s) Large doors were mounted here for defense against enemy troops

Station 3: Parade Ground Overlook Near the Lighthouse Find this door. Nearby find a door like it. Compare the doors. Make two possible inferences about what layer of Alcatraz history this door is from, and why it looks this way.

What question would you like to ask anyone in the history of Alcatraz? For example, what might you ask an American Indian Activist, the child of a guard, an inmate or a soldier…?

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Station 3: Parade Ground Overlook Look over the cliff at the parade grounds below. If you were a bird, why would you choose to nest here?

What do you notice about the water?

Station 4: Eagle Plaza This photo was taken when the prison was open. Compare it to the eagle today. What is different about it now? Who do you think changed it? When do you think this happened? Why do you think it was changed?

What question would you like to ask anyone in the history of Alcatraz?

You will next be entering the cellhouse. As you pass through the first door, glance up to find a feature from the same layer of history located on the wall above the second doorway. Alcatraz Uncovered: Archeologist Field Notes

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Station 5: The Cellhouse Be sure to indicate in your “Observation” column where you are: D-Block (isolation unit), Cellhouse or RY (Recreation Yard) Observation Example: D-Block - Hinged window openings in the doors of D Block dark cells #9-14

Inference(s) For air / So guard could talk to prisoner without opening door / Cooperative prisoners could earn the privilege of an open window

Use this area of the page for notes, sketches comments and questions.

What has interested you most?

What question would you like to ask anyone in the history of Alcatraz?

Alcatraz Uncovered: Archeologist Field Notes

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How can I demonstrate what I have learned? Archeological Jeopardy S U M M A RY

Students engage in an interactive game to review concepts studied during the program. TIME

50 minutes M AT E R I A LS ! ! ! ! !

Vocabulary list Question/Answer master sheet Jeopardy cards Masking tape Chalk or markers to record points

Lesson Teacher prepares the Jeopardy game using the following procedure:

Photocopy and cut the cards on the following pages. Note: these are two-sided copies. Create a game board by taping the cards to the blackboard or other surface. Have the dollar amounts face out and the questions and answers face in. The board should look like this: Archeology $100 $200 $300 $400 $500

Penitentiary $100 $200 $300 $400 $500

Occupation $100 $200 $300 $400 $500

Fortress $100 $200 $300 $400 $500

Natural Resources $100 $200 $300 $400 $500

The class plays the game using the following procedure:

Students divide into two teams. One person from each team stands up. A coin toss can determine which team chooses the first question (questions get more difficult A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

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with higher point values). Teacher reads the question. The student who raises her/his hand first can attempt to answer the question. If that student does not answer the question correctly, the other student can attempt to answer. If both students answer incorrectly, they may consult with their team members. Record the points. The next two students stand up, and the team that made the last correct answer chooses the next question. Continue until all the cards have been revealed. * If you wish, allow the students to refer to a copy of the vocabulary list and other student materials.

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Archeological Jeopardy Master sheet Archeology Archeology - $100 Q: Name three material objects or features that archeologists study. A: Various answers: artifacts, ecofacts, structures, clothing, maps, pictures; etc. Archeology - $200 Q: Explain the difference between observation and inference. A: Observation notes a fact or occurrence. Inference is a conclusion derived from an observation. Archeology - $300 Q: Why do archeologists study the past? A: Various answers: to understand past societies; etc. Archeology - $400 Q: Name one way archeologists are careful when they preserve the past. A: Various answers: handle artifacts carefully, record field notes, leave artifacts where they find them; etc. Archeology - $500 Q: Define context and why it is so important. A: Definition: The relationship of an object to its surroundings, and to other artifacts or ecofacts that surround it. Important: way of understanding the scene; if moved, an artifact can lose its significance; less information can be inferred if artifact is moved. A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

3

Military Military- $100 Q: Name three artifacts or features from the military era. A: Various answers: photographs, structures, cell house, moat; etc. Military- $200 Q: What is the name of the buildings in which the soldiers lived? A: Barracks. Military - $300 Q: Who besides soldiers lived on the island? A: Various answers: families, workers, lighthouse keepers. Military - $400 Q: What historic event happened that made San Francisco harbor so important to protect? A: Gold Rush. Military - $500 Q: Name two ways that the military changed the landscape of the island. A: Various: blasted edges, flattened parade ground, planted exotic plants, brought animals that impacted indigenous ecosystem.

Penitentiary Penitentiary - $100 Q: Name three artifacts or features from the penitentiary years. A: Various: cell house, keys, photographs, guard towers, fences, recreation yard.

4

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitentiary - $200 Q: Who besides the convicts lived on the island? A: Various: guards, families of guards, workers. Penitentiary - $300 Q: Where were prisoners sent when they got into trouble? A: Isolation – Block D. Penitentiary - $400 Q: Name the inmate executed on Alcatraz. A: No one was executed on Alcatraz. Penitentiary - $500 Q: Name two things that help you infer that Alcatraz was a maximum-security prison. A: Various: 1 guard for every 3 prisoners; high profile convicts were sent to the island; slogan "worst of the worst"; isolation cells; etc.

Occupation Occupation - $100 Q: Name three artifacts or features from the occupation. A: Various: graffiti, photographs, proclamations; etc. Occupation - $200 Q: How did the members of the occupation use the recreation yard? A: Ceremonies and festivals.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

5

Occupation - $300 Q: What future use did the occupation participants want for Alcatraz? A: A university for Native American culture and education. Occupation - $400 Q: Why did indigenous people occupy Alcatraz? A: Various: to demand equal rights; to protest conditions at reservations and in cities; as a symbol of freedom. Occupation - $500 Q: Name a phrase or symbol used during the occupation. A: Various: Red Power; Alcatraz is Indian Land; fist; freedom in flag over cell house.

Natural Resources Natural Resources - $100 Q: What bird with pink legs nests on Alcatraz? A: Western Gull. Natural Resources - $200 Q: What typically large brown bird has a colony on Alcatraz? A: Cormorant. Natural Resources - $300 Q: Identify the plant several feet across with yellow and green flowers that has a trail named for it on Alcatraz. A: Agave plant.

6

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Natural Resources - $400 Q: Identify the person whose job it is to monitor and protect wildlife on Alcatraz. A: Various: National Park Service ranger or resource manager; volunteer. Natural Resources - $500 Q: Name one group of people who brought exotic plants to Alcatraz and the purpose of those plants. A: Various: military – decorative and vegetable gardens; military – soil and plants to help prevent erosion; penitentiary guards and inmates – decorative gardens.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

7

Jeopardy Archeologico Arqueología Arqueología - $100 P:

Nombre tres objetos materiales o características que estudian los arqueólogos.

C: Varias respuestas: artefactos, datos ecológicos, estructuras, vestimenta, mapas, pinturas; etc. Arqueología - $200 P:

Explique la diferencia entre observación e inferencia.

C: La observación reconoce o nota un hecho o evento. Inferencia es una conclusión derivada de una observación. Arqueología - $300 P:

¿Por qué los arqueólogos estudian el pasado?

C: Varias respuestas: para entender las sociedades anteriores; etc. Arqueología - $400 P:

Mencione una manera en que los arqueólogos demuestran cuidado al preservar el pasado.

C: Varias respuestas: manejan los artefactos con cuidado, hacen anotaciones de campo, dejan los artefactos donde los hallan, etc. Arqueología - $500 P:

Defina lo que es contexto y por qué es tan importante.

C: Definición: La relación de un objeto con su entorno y con otros artefactos o datos ecológicos que lo rodean. Importancia: es un 8

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

modo de entender la escena; si es movido, un artefacto puede perder su significado, puede inferirse menos información si el artefacto es movido. Militar Militar - $100 P: Nombre tres artefactos o características de la época militar. C: Varias respuestas: fotografías, estructuras, prisión, fosa o canal; etc. Militar - $200 P: ¿Cuál es el nombre de los edificios donde vivían los soldados? C: Barracas Militar - $300 P:

¿Quiénes vivían en la isla además de los soldados?

C: Varias respuestas: familias, trabajadores, trabajadores del faro. Militar - $400 P:

¿Qué evento histórico ocurrió que hizo tan importante el proteger el puerto de San Francisco?

C: La Fiebre del Oro. Militar - $500 P:

Mencione dos maneras en que los militares cambiaron el aspecto de la isla.

C: Varias respuestas: dinamitaron las orillas, aplanaron el área de recreación, sembraron plantas exóticas, trajeron animales que impactaron el ecosistema original.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

9

Penitenciaría Penitenciaría - $100 P:

Nombre tres artefactos o características de los años de la penitenciaría.

C: Varias respuestas: cárcel, llaves, fotografías, torres de observación, verjas, área de recreación. Penitenciaría - $200 P:

¿Quién vivía en la isla además de los presos?

C: Varias respuestas: guardias, familias de los guardias, trabajadores. Penitenciaría - $300 P: ¿Dónde eran enviados los prisioneros cuando creaban problemas? C: Aislamiento – Bloque D Penitenciaría - $400 P: Nombre el prisionero que fue ejecutado en Alcatraz. C: Nadie fue ejecutado en Alcatraz. Penitenciaría - $500 P:

Nombre dos cosas que le ayudan a inferir que Alcatraz era una prisión de máxima seguridad.

C: Varias respuestas: 1 guardia por cada tres prisioneros; convictos notorios eran enviados a la isla, frase "de la peor calaña", celdas de aislamiento; etc.

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A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Ocupación Ocupación - $100 P: Nombre tres artefactos o características del tiempo de la ocupación. C: Varias respuestas: graffiti, fotografías, proclamas; etc. Ocupación - $200 P: ¿Cómo utilizaron los miembros de la ocupación el área de recreación? C: Ceremonias y festivales. Ocupación - $300 P:

¿Qué uso futuro querían para Alcatraz los participantes en la ocupación?

C: Una universidad para la cultura y educación de los Nativos Americanos Ocupación - $400 P:

¿Por qué la gente indígena ocupó Alcatraz?

C: Varias respuestas: para exigir igualdad de derechos, protestar por las condiciones en las reservaciones y en las ciudades; como un símbolo de libertad. Ocupación - $500 P:

Mencione una frase o símbolo usado durante la ocupación.

C: Varias respuestas: "Poder Rojo", "Alcatraz es territorio Indio"; puño cerrado; "Libertad" en la bandera sobre la cárcel.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

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Recursos Naturales Recursos Naturales - $100 P: ¿Cuál pájaro con patas rosadas anida en Alcatraz? C: La gaviota del Oeste Recursos Naturales - $200 P:

¿Cuál pájaro, generalmente grande y color marrón tiene una colonia en Alcatraz?

C: El Cuervo Marino o Cormorán Recursos Naturales - $300 P:

Identifique la planta que mide varios pies de ancho, con flore amarillas y verdes y cuyo nombre lleva una vereda en Alcatraz.

C: Planta de Maguey Recursos Naturales - $400 P:

Identifique la persona cuyo trabajo es vigilar y proteger la vida silvestre en Alcatraz.

C: Varias respuestas: guardia del Servicio Nacional de Parques o administrador de recursos, voluntario. Recursos Naturales - $500 P:

Mencione un grupo de personas que trajo plantas exóticas a Alcatraz y el uso dado a dichas plantas.

C: Varias respuestas: los militares – para huertos y jardines; militares – para terreno y plantas para prevenir la erosión; guardias y prisioneros – para jardines.

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A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Archaeology Jeopardy Cards

18

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Archeology - $100

Name three material objects or features that archeologists study. Various answers: • • • • • •

artifacts ecofacts structures clothing maps pictures

Archeology - $200

Explain the difference between observation and inference. Observation notes a fact or occurrence. Inference is a conclusion derived from an observation.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

19

Archeology

$100 Archeology

$200 20

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Archeology - $300

Why do archeologists study the past? Various answers: • to understand past societies

Archeology - $400

Name one way archeologists are careful when they preserve the past. Various answers: • handle artifacts carefully • record field notes • leave artifacts where they find them

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

21

Archeology

$300 Archeology

$400 22

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Archeology - $500

Define context and why it is so important. Definition: The relationship of an object to its surroundings, and to other artifacts or ecofacts that surround it. Important: way of understanding the scene; if moved, an artifact can lose its significance; less information can be inferred if artifact is moved.

Military- $100

Name three artifacts or features from the military era. Various answers: • photographs • structures • cell house • moat

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

23

Archeology

$500 Military

$100 24

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Military- $200

What is the name of the buildings in which the soldiers lived? Barracks.

Military - $300

Who besides soldiers lived on the island? Various answers: • families • workers • lighthouse keepers

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

25

Military

$200 Military

$300 26

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Military - $400

What historic event happened that made San Francisco harbor so important to protect? Gold Rush.

Military - $500

Name two ways that the military changed the landscape of the island. Various answers: • blasted edges • flattened parade ground • planted exotic plants • brought animals that impacted indigenous ecosystem A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

27

Military

$400 Military

$500 28

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitentiary - $100

Name three artifacts or features from the penitentiary years. Various answers: • cell house • keys • photographs • guard towers • fences • recreation yard

Penitentiary - $200

Who besides the convicts lived on the island? Various answers: • guards • families of guards • workers

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

29

Penitentiary

$100 Penitentiary

$200 30

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitentiary - $300

Where were prisoners sent when they got into trouble? Isolation – Block D.

Penitentiary - $400

Name the inmate executed on Alcatraz. No one was executed on Alcatraz.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

31

Penitentiary

$300 Penitentiary

$400 32

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitentiary - $500

Name two things that help you infer that Alcatraz was a maximum-security prison. Various answers: • 1 guard for every 3 prisoners • high profile convicts were sent to the island • slogan "worst of the worst" • isolation cells

Occupation - $100

Name three artifacts or features from the occupation. Various answers: • graffiti • photographs • proclamations

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

33

Penitentiary

$500 Occupation

$100 34

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Occupation - $200

How did the members of the occupation use the recreation yard? Ceremonies and festivals.

Occupation - $300

What future use did the occupation participants want for Alcatraz? A university for Native American culture and education.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

35

Occupation

$200 Occupation

$300 36

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Occupation - $400

Why did indigenous people occupy Alcatraz? Various answers: • to demand equal rights • to protest conditions at reservations and in cities • as a symbol of freedom

Occupation - $500

Name a phrase or symbol used during the occupation. Various answers: • Red Power • Alcatraz is Indian Land • fist • freedom in flag over cell house

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

37

Occupation

$400 Occupation

$500 38

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Natural Resources - $100

What bird with pink legs nests on Alcatraz? Western Gull.

Natural Resources - $200

What typically large brown bird has a colony on Alcatraz? Cormorant.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

39

Natural Resources

$100 Natural Resources

$200 40

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Natural Resources - $300

Identify the plant several feet across with yellow and green flowers that has a trail named for it on Alcatraz. Agave plant.

Natural Resources - $400

Identify the person whose job it is to monitor and protect wildlife on Alcatraz. Various: • National Park Service ranger or resource manager • volunteer

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

41

Natural Resources

$300 Natural Resources

$400 42

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Natural Resources - $500

Name one group of people who brought exotic plants to Alcatraz and the purpose of those plants. Various answers: • military – decorative and vegetable gardens • military – soil and plants to help prevent erosion • penitentiary guards and inmates – decorative gardens

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

43

Natural Resources

$500

44

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Arqueología - $100

Nombre tres objetos materiales o características que estudian los arqueólogos. Varias respuestas: • artefactos • datos ecológicos • estructuras • vestimenta • mapas • pinturas; etc.

Arqueología - $200

Explique la diferencia entre observación e inferencia. La observación reconoce o nota un hecho o evento. Inferencia es una conclusión derivada de una observación.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

45

Arqueología

$100 Arqueología

$200 46

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Arqueología - $300

¿Por qué los arqueólogos estudian el pasado? Varias respuestas: para entender las sociedades anteriores; etc.

Arqueología - $400

Mencione una manera en que los arqueólogos demuestran cuidado al preservar el pasado. Varias respuestas: • manejan los artefactos con cuidado • hacen anotaciones de campo • dejan los artefactos donde los hallan, etc.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

47

Arqueología

$300 Arqueología

$400 48

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Arqueología - $500

Defina lo que es contexto y por qué es tan importante. Definición: La relación de un objeto con su entorno y con otros artefactos o datos ecológicos que lo rodean. Importancia: es un modo de entender la escena; si es movido, un artefacto puede perder su significado, puede inferirse menos información si el artefacto es movido.

Militar - $100

Nombre tres artefactos o características de la época militar. Varias respuestas: • fotografías • estructuras • prisión • fosa o canal; etc.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

49

Arqueología

$500 Militar

$100 50

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Militar - $200

¿Cuál es el nombre de los edificios donde vivían los soldados? Barracas

Militar - $300

¿Quiénes vivían en la isla además de los soldados? Varias respuestas: • familias • trabajadores • trabajadores del faro

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

51

Militar

$200 Militar

$300 52

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Militar - $400

¿Qué evento histórico ocurrió que hizo tan importante el proteger el puerto de San Francisco? La Fiebre del Oro.

Militar - $500

Mencione dos maneras en que los militares cambiaron el aspecto de la isla. Varias respuestas: • dinamitaron las orillas • aplanaron el área de recreación • sembraron plantas exóticas • trajeron animales que impactaron el ecosistema original A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

53

Militar

$400 Militar

$500 54

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitenciaría - $100

Nombre tres artefactos o características de los años de la penitenciaría. Varias respuestas: • cárcel • llaves • fotografías • torres de observación • verjas • área de recreación

Penitenciaría - $200

¿Quién vivía en la isla además de los presos? Varias respuestas: • guardias • familias de los guardias • trabajadores

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

55

Penitenciaría

$100 Penitenciaría

$200 56

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitenciaría - $300

¿Dónde eran enviados los prisioneros cuando creaban problemas? Aislamiento – Bloque D

Penitenciaría - $400

Nombre el prisionero que fue ejecutado en Alcatraz. Nadie fue ejecutado en Alcatraz.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

57

Penitenciaría

$300 Penitenciaría

$400 58

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Penitenciaría - $500

Nombre dos cosas que le ayudan a inferir que Alcatraz era una prisión de máxima seguridad. Varias respuestas: • 1 guardia por cada tres prisioneros; convictos notorios eran enviados a la isla • frase "de la peor calaña" • celdas de aislamiento; etc.

Ocupación - $100

Nombre tres artefactos o características del tiempo de la ocupación. Varias respuestas: • graffiti • fotografías • proclamas; etc.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

59

Penitenciaría

$500 Ocupación

$100 60

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Ocupación - $200

¿Cómo utilizaron los miembros de la ocupación el área de recreación? Ceremonias y festivales.

Ocupación - $300

¿Qué uso futuro querían para Alcatraz los participantes en la ocupación? Una universidad para la cultura y educación de los Nativos Americanos

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

61

Ocupación

$200 Ocupación

$300 62

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Ocupación - $400

¿Por qué la gente indígena ocupó Alcatraz? Varias respuestas: • para exigir igualdad de derechos • protestar por las condiciones en las reservaciones y en las ciudades • como un símbolo de libertad

Ocupación - $500

Mencione una frase o símbolo usado durante la ocupación. Varias respuestas: • "Poder Rojo" • "Alcatraz es territorio Indio" • puño cerrado • "Libertad" en la bandera sobre la cárcel

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

63

Ocupación

$400 Ocupación

$500 64

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Recursos Naturales - $100

¿Cuál pájaro con patas rosadas anida en Alcatraz? La gaviota del Oeste

Recursos Naturales - $200

¿Cuál pájaro, generalmente grande y color marrón tiene una colonia en Alcatraz? El Cuervo Marino o Cormorán

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

65

Recursos Naturales

$100 Recursos Naturales

$200 66

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Recursos Naturales - $300

Identifique la planta que mide varios pies de ancho, con flore amarillas y verdes y cuyo nombre lleva una vereda en Alcatraz. Planta de Maguey

Recursos Naturales - $400

Identifique la persona cuyo trabajo es vigilar y proteger la vida silvestre en Alcatraz. Varias respuestas: • guardia del Servicio Nacional de Parques o administrador de recursos • voluntario

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

67

Recursos Naturales

$300 Recursos Naturales

$400 68

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

Recursos Naturales - $500

Mencione un grupo de personas que trajo plantas exóticas a Alcatraz y el uso dado a dichas plantas. Varias respuestas: • los militares – para huertos y jardines • militares – para terreno y plantas para prevenir la erosión • guardias y prisioneros – para jardines

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

69

Recursos Naturales

$500

70

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

How can I demonstrate what I have learned?

Alcatraz Rocks S U M M A RY

Students write an essay from the perspective of an archeologist. Students compare their initial impressions of Alcatraz with their new understanding based on their knowledge and experience of the island. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS ! !

Student notebooks Brainstorm notes from the “What do I already know about Alcatraz Island” lesson

Lesson Teacher explains that students will write an essay based on one of the following questions: How has my understanding of Alcatraz changed from studying and exploring the island from the perspective of an archeologist? Or I am an archeologist in the year 2200. What do I see and interpret from the material remains on the island? How will I explain what I see to other people? Teacher explains that students can use their notebooks or any other class materials to help them accomplish the assignment. They must include at least five vocabulary words. Teacher posts the notes from the first lesson,"What do I already know about Alcatraz?" As a class, students compare their first impressions with main points from their essays. Students make an entry in their notebooks charting their own growth.

A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

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How can I demonstrate what I have learned?

Puzzle Pieces S U M M A RY

Student groups design a piece of the puzzle to reflect their own interpretation of the significant historical experiences, cultural expressions and natural resources associated with Alcatraz Island. The complete puzzle (the shape of the island itself ) will be displayed as part of an installation of student work on the island. TIME

1 hour M AT E R I A LS !

Cardboard puzzle

Lesson Teacher receives a blank cardboard puzzle after the class visits the island. The puzzle pieces fit together to create the shape of Alcatraz. Students receive a piece of the puzzle on which to create a visual image. The puzzle piece should show their interpretation of layers of history and experience on Alcatraz Island. The decorations can be creative, using things such as drawings, cutout pictures, photographs and glued objects. Teacher encourages students to review their notebooks and classroom work to generate ideas. Students explain their puzzle piece to the class. Students then refit the entire puzzle into the original shape of the island. Teacher brings the completed puzzle to National Park Service staff. The puzzle then is displayed on Alcatraz Island for the public to view.

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A l c a t ra z U n c ov e re d - C u l m i n a t i n g P ro j e c t s

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Alcatraz Uncovered - National Park Service

T he Golden Gate National Parks—with their fragile indigenous habitats and historic landmarks, ancient redwood groves and dramatic coastal preserve a...

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